Monologue - a form of speech, is a result of active speech activity, designed for passive and mediated perception and virtually unrelated to any other person speech in content or in a structural way. Sometimes defined as a monologue intrapersonal speech act. The monologue is inherently contradictory: on the one hand, once people started talking, then he expects to communicate with another - a monologue absolutely not suitable for direct contact, it assumes that the listener only hears, but does not answer.
The main usage of monologue - the arts, oratorical speech, communication on television and radio, learning situation (we are teachers in the classroom, etc.). In everyday communication monological speech is extremely rare. For monologue are typical the large fragments of text consisting of structurally and substantively interrelated propositions with the composition structure of the individual and the relative semantic completeness. Monological speech, as opposed to dialogical speech, you must learn.
Monological speech allocates a relatively large extent of the replica, the compositional complexity, addressed to yourself, the desire to go beyond the immediate case of the frame.
Classification You can categorize monologues by goal statements: The form: internal and external; The way of organization: private and public; The sphere of everyday life: friendly and official; The genre: art monologue, oratory speech etc.; The communicative-functional affiliation: narrative, report, etc.; The situational peculiarities of communication: direct- contact, indirect-contact (-radio, TV); The genetic characteristics: improvised, prepared; The thematic criterion: scientific, publicistic, artistic.
Monologue - a speech by yourself. The monologue is not directed directly to the listener and, accordingly, is not designed for interlocutors response. Monologue may be unprepared, and premeditated. The target speech monologues are divided into three basic types: informational, persuasive and encouraging.
The informational speech provides for the transfer of knowledge. In this case, the speaker must take into account the intellectual abilities of perception and cognitive capabilities of listeners. Varieties of speech information - lectures, reports, messages.
Persuasive speech is addressed to the emotions of the audience, in this case, the speaker must take into account its perception. Varieties of persuasive speech: greetings, festive, farewell.
Motivating speech is directed at to encourage students to various activities. Here allocate political speech, speech- calling to action, speech-protest.
Monologues are distinguished by the degree of preparedness and formality. Oratorical speech always presents itself as a prepared monologue, pronounced in a formal setting. However, to some extent, a monologue - is an artificial form of speech, always striving to dialogue. Therefore any monologue may have the means of dialogue.
The obligatory characteristics of any monological speech are the connections between phrases, which combine sentences and word-combinations into common text. 2 types of these connections: constructed by the principle of cohesion and refrain. Cohesion – is a form of communication, when one element of one utterance indicates the element of another utterance, i.e. transferring of the sense from one utterance to another.
Anaphor - a reference to what was said earlier, as simple as repetition of lexical items, the use of conjunctions. Refrains - they may be lexical, grammatical, syntactic or semantical.
Conclusion Monologue is a speech presented by a single character, most often to express their thoughts aloud, though sometimes also to directly address another character or the audience. Monologues are common across the range of dramatic media (plays, films, animation, etc.). It is distinct from a soliloquy, which is where a character relates his or her thoughts and feelings to him/herself and to the audience without addressing any of the other characters. It is also distinct from an apostrophe, wherein the speaker or writer addresses an imaginary person, inanimate object, or idea.
Sources Бацевич Ф.С. Основи комунікативної лінгвістики. - Підручник серії "Альма Матер" видавництва "Академія", Київ, 2004 рік. 346 с. Чухлебова И. Особенности монологической речи. - Интернет журнал СахГУ «Наука, образование, общество», its-journalist.ru/Articles/monolog.html