Arranged marriage is a type of marital union where the bride and groom are selected by a third party rather than by each other. It was lminority groups in developed countries; elsewhere, arranged marriage is common in South Asia, Africa,the Middle East,Latin America, Southeast Asia and parts of East Asia. Other groups that practice this custom include the Unification Church.South Asia AfricaMiddle EastLatin AmericaSoutheast Asia East Asia Unification Church Unequal marriage, a 19th-century painting by Russian artist Pukirev. It depicts an arranged marriage where a young girl is forced to marry someone she doesn't want to. Arranged marriages were the norm in Russia before early 20th century, most of which were endogamous.  
Low divorce rates in countries with arranged marriages points to the success of the arranged marriage. High divorce rates in countries with love marriages indicate that perhaps this form of marriage does not work.
Yet, they persist. And in India, where arranged marriages are the "norm," love marriages are becoming increasingly popular. Because of cultural differences, it is difficult to say which form of marriage is the best, but here is an attempt to compare the benefits of an arranged marriage versus the benefits of a love marriage.
Benefits of an Arranged Marriage Reduction of incompatibilities- same religion, caste, dietary preference, linguistic group, socioeconomic background, etc. Following one's heart is often wiser than following one's head- love can just be an infatuation. Lower divorce rates. Low expectations- neither spouse knows exactly what to expect, so they are often pleasantly surprised by how good their marriage is.
Benefits of a Love Marriage Individual autonomy- it's your life, so you should choose who you want to spend it with. Informed decision- you know your partner well on a personal level, so you know what to expect. Love- "love will conquer all." Individual interest- Your family might choose you a partner based on what is best for the family, but you can choose a partner who is best for you.
Child marriage Child marriage, particularly those below the age of 12, does not prepare or provide the individual much opportunity to make an informed, free choice about matrimony. These child marriages are implicitly arranged marriages. In rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and Latin America, poverty and lack of options such as schools leave little choice other than early arranged marriages. According to Warner, in nations with highest rates of child marriages, the marriage of girl is almost always arranged by her parents or guardians. The nations with highest rates of arranged child marriages are: Niger, Chad, Mali, Bangladesh, Guinea, Central African Republic, Afghanistan, Yemen, and Pakistan. Arranged child marriages are also observed in parts of Americas. "Marriage à-la-mode" by William Hogarth: a satire on arranged marriages and prediction of ensuing disasterMarriage à-la-modeWilliam Hogarth
Poverty In impoverished communities, every adult mouth to feed becomes a continuing burden. Arranging a marriage of a daughter, claim scholars, [ is a means to reduce this burden. Poverty, thus, is a driver of arranged marriage. This theory,is supported by the observed rapid drop in arranged marriages in fast growing economies of Asia. The benefit parents received from the contributions from their earning daughters has been cited as a reason for their growing reluctance to see their daughters marry at too early an age. Late marriage Late marriage, particularly past the age of 30, reduces the pool of available bachelors for autonomous marriages. Introductions and arranged marriages become a productive option. For example, in part due to economic prosperity, about 40% of modern Japanese women reach the age of 29 and have never been married. To assist late marriages, the traditional custom of arranged marriages called Miai-gekkon is re-emerging. It involves the prospective bride and groom, family, friends and a matchmaker (nakōdo, ); the pair is selected by a process with the individuals and family involved (iegara, ); and typically the couple meet three times, in public or private, before deciding if they want to get engaged.Miai-gekkon
Tradition Many cultures traditionally seek endogamous marriages. A prominent example of this practice is the Hindu culture where the bride and groom belong to the same caste, but are non-consanguineous, that is the bride and groom cannot be blood relatives nor an extended family member. Other examples of cultures following endogamous arranged marriage tradition include Amish people in United States, Hasidic Jews in Canada and Western Europe,Arab Christians such as Coptic Christians in Egypt.Arranged marriage is also the tradition of many Islamic nations of West Asia and North Africa, but with the difference that between 17% to majority of all marriages in these countries are also consanguineous marriages.HinduAmishHasidicCoptic Christians Endogamous non-consanguineous marriages limit the number of potential partners available, particularly when population size for the religion or caste or group is small; limited mating pool makes locating potential partners challenging, and encourages arranged or quasi-arranged marriages. Endogamous consanguineous marriage practice dramatically limits the mating pool; they inherently cause arranged marriages by tradition and birth. Over 1.3 billion people, predominantly of Islamic faith practice endogamous consanguineous arranged marriages. Consanguineous arranged marriages are presently also observed, to a much lesser extent, in some ethnic groups of Africa, India, Indonesia, Polynesia and South AmericaIn Pakistan and Saudi Arabia, majority (65%+) of all marriages are endogamous and consanguineous arranged marriages. More than 40% of all marriages are endogamous and consanguineous in Iraq, Iran, Jordan, Syria, Yemen, Kuwait, UAE, Oman, Sudan, Libya and Mauritania; and over 1 in 5 marriages in Turkey, Egypt, Algeria, regions of Nigeria, India and Malaysia with high Muslim populations are endogamous and consanguineous arranged marriages. Among these Islamic populations, arranged marriages include endogamous and non- consanguineous marriages, and therefore exceed the above observed rates of endogamous and consanguineous marriages.
Custom The consequence of some customs is arranged marriage. For example, in rural and tribal parts of Pakistan and Afghanistan, disputes, unpaid debts in default and crimes such as murder are settled by a council of village elders, called jirga. A typical punishment for a crime committed by males involves requiring the guilty family to marry their virgin girl between 5 to 12 year old to the other family. This custom requires no consent from the girl, or even her parents. Such arranged child marriages are called vani (custom), swara and sak in different regional languages of Pakistan.vani (custom) Another custom in certain Islamic nations, such as Pakistan, is watta satta, where brother-sister pair of one family are swapped as spouses of brother-sister pair of another family. In other words, the wife is also the sister-in-law for the males in two families. This custom inherently leads to arranged form of marriage. About 30% of all marriages in western rural regions of Pakistan are by custom watta-satta marriages, and 75% of these Muslim marriages are between cousins and other blood relatives. Some immigrant families prefer customary practice of arranged marriage.watta satta
Politics The arranged marriage in 1697, of Marie Adélaïde of Savoy, age 12 to Louis, heir apparent to the throne of France, as a result of the Treaty of Turin signed on 29 August The marriage created an alliance between Louis XIV of France and Duke of Savoy. Arranged marriages across feudal lords, city states and kingdoms, as a means of establishing political alliances, trade and peace were common in human history.   Wealth and inheritance issues Throughout most of human history, marriage has been a social institution that produced children and organized inheritance of property from one generation to next. Various cultures, particularly some wealthy royals and aristocratic families, arranged marriages in part to conserve or streamline the inheritance of their wealth.   Tongyangxi, also known as Shim-pua marriage in Taiwanese - literally child or little daughter-in-law - was a tradition of arranged marriage, in which a poor family would arrange and marry a pre-adolescent daughter into a richer family as a servant.  The little girl provided slave-like free labour, and also the daughter-in- law to the adoptive family's son. This sort of arranged marriage, in theory, enabled the girl to escape poverty and wealthy family to get free labour and a daughter-in-law. Zhaozhui was a related custom by which a wealthy family that lacked an heir would arrange marriage of a boy child from another family. The boy would move in with the wealthy family, take on the surname of the new family, and marry the family's daughter. Such arranged marriages helped maintain inheritance bloodlines.  Similar uxorilocal arranged marriages to preserve wealth inheritance were common in Korea, Japan and other parts of the world. Shim-pua marriage   
Bride-wealth In many cultures, particularly in parts of Africa and the Middle East, daughters are valuable on the marriage market, because the groom and his family must pay cash and property for the right to marry the daughter. This is termed as bride-wealth and locally, by various names such as Lobola and Wine Carrying. The bride-wealth is typically kept by the bride's family, after the marriage, and is a source of income to poor families. The brothers, father and male relatives of the bride typically take keen interest in arranging her marriage to a man who is willing to pay most wealth in exchange for the right to marry her. Religion Some religious dominations recognize marriages only within the faith. Of the major religions of the world, only Islam forbids marriage of girls born to a devout parent to a man who does not belong to that religion. In other words, Islam forbids marriage of Muslim girls to non-Muslim men, and the religious punishment for those who marry outside is death. This is one of the causes of arranged marriages in Islamic minority populations in Europe. Broude and Greene, after studying 142 cultures worldwide, have reported that 130 cultures have elements of arranged marriage.