The category of MOOD expresses the character of connection between the process denoted by the verb and the actual reality, either presenting the process as a fact that really happened, happens or will happen, or treating it as an imaginary phenomenon.
Number of MOODS : Ilyish 3 MOODS (indicative, subjunctive, imperative)- meaning and form; M.Deutschbein : 16 MOODS, а functional approach; Prof. Smirnitsky (+ O.S.Akhmanova, M.Gashina, N.Vasilevskaya): 6 MOODS (indicative, imperative, subjunctive I, subjunctive II, suppositional, conditional) - form and meaning; L.S.Barhudarov, D.A. Shteling: 2 MOODS (indicative, subjunctive); G.N.Vorontsova: 4 MOODS ( indicative, optative speculative, presumptive ).
the indicative mood the imperative mood the subjunctive mood
The indicative mood form shows that what is said must be regarded as a fact, as something which has occurred or is occurring at the moment of speaking or will occur in the future. It may denote actions with different time- reference and different aspective characteristics. Therefore the indicative mood has a wide variety of tense and aspect forms in the active and passive voice.
The imperative mood expresses a command or a request to perform an action addressed to somebody, but not the action itself. As it does not actually denote an action as a real act, it has no tense category.Aspect distinctions and voice distinctions are not characteristic of the imperative mood.
The imperative mood form coincides with the plain stem of the verb, for example: Come here! Sit down. The negative form is built by means of the auxiliary do + the negative particle not (the contracted form is dont ). This form is always addressed to the second person. Do not take it away. Dont worry about the child. Dont be a fool. Do is also used in commands or requests to make them more emphatic: Do come and stay with us. Do be quiet.
The subjunctive mood is the category of the verb which is used to express non-facts: unreal or hypothetical actions or states. A hypothetical action or state may be viewed upon as desired, necessary, possible, supposed, imaginary, or contradicting reality.
There are 4 types of Subjunctive in the English language Subjunctive I Subjunctive II Subjunctive III Subjunctive IV
The mood which is traditionally called subjunctive I, expresses various attitudes of the speaker : desire, consideration (supposition, suggestion, hypothesis), inducement (recommendation, request, command, order), etc. The form of subjunctive I is homonymous with the bare infinitive : Long live the king! I demand that the case be investigated thoroughly.
Subjunctive II in form is homonymous with the past tense forms of the verbs in the indicative mood (except for the verb to be, which in all persons and numbers is used in the form were).
Used mostly in : o the subordinate clauses of complex sentences with causal-conditional relations, such as the clauses of unreal condition: If she tried, (she would manage it); If I were you…; o and a number of related meanings, for example, of urgency, e.g.: (Its high time) she tried to change the situation; or of unreal wish, e.g.: (I wish) she tried harder; If only she tried!
Subjunctive III (known as the conditional ) denotes the corresponding consequence of an unreal condition in the principal part of the causal-conditional sentences; in form it is homonymous with the analytical future in the past tense forms of verbs in the indicative mood: ( If she tried ), she would manage it.
Subjunctive IV (referred to as modal suppositional ) is built with the help of modal verbs, and expresses the same semantic types of unreality as subjunctive I : may/might + infinitive – is used to denote wish, desire, hope, and supposition, e.g.: May it be so! (cf. with subjunctive I: Be it so!); should + infinitive, e.g.: Whatever my mother should say about him, well marry one day (cf. with subjunctive I: Whatever my mother say about him, well marry one day ).
In Russian, like in English, 3 types of mood are distinguished: Indicative mood; Imperative mood; Conditional mood.
Denotes action that is viewed by the speaker as real in the past, present or future. Урал хорошо служит, служил и будет служить нашей Родине. Peculiar feature of the indicative mood: it has tense forms.
The verbs of imperative mood designate inducement to an action, order, appeal, advice or wish. Не ходи туда. Пожалуйста, спойте нам песню.
o Adding the suffix - и to the base of a future- tense verb forms the singular imperative verb. изогнут --> изогни o Adding the ending - те to the singular imperative verb form forms the plural imperative verb. войти --> войдите o The imperative mood can also be formed with the help of particles пусть, пускай, да. Пускай идут побыстрее.
Verbs of subjunctive mood designate actions which one wants to happen, or just possible ones, under certain circumstances. A sentence containing subjunctive verbs shows that an action has not happen, but it could have happened if certain circumstances took place. Я бы пошёл в кино, если бы у меня был билет.
Adding the particle " бы ", either near a verb, or at any other place in a sentence, forms the subjunctive mood of a verb. The verbs of subjunctive mood change in number: двигался бы - singular двигались бы - plural At the same time, singular verbs change in person. он двигался бы - he would have moved она двигалась бы - she would have moved оно двигалось бы - it would have moved
Литература Блох М. Я. Теоретическая грамматика английского языка. – Москва, Кобрина Н. А., Корнеева Е. А. Грамматика английского языка : Морфология. Синтаксис. – С.- Петербург : Союз, 1999 Ривлина А. А., Теоретическая грамматика английского языка : учебно - методическое пособие / А. А. Ривлина. – Благовещенск : Изд - во БГПУ, 2009.