VAC TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 1 TagMaster AB TagMaster Training 2013 EPC Gen 2 System. - презентация
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VAC TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 1 TagMaster AB TagMaster Training 2013 EPC Gen 2 System
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 2 TagMaster AB Contents EPC Gen 2 Background EPC Gen 2 Tag Protocol SecureMarkID The XT Series
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 3 TagMaster AB EPC Gen 2 Background
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 4 TagMaster AB EPC Gen 2 / ISO C EPC Gen 2 = ISO C Originally created for item management in the supply chain. Flexible enough to be used for other things as well!
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 5 TagMaster AB The Origin The Electronic Product Code (EPC) has a somewhat surprising origin in a reasearch project called the DISC (Distributed Intelligent Systems Center) that was started at MIT in The initial paper was written by David Brock. His idea was to put RFID tags on everything to make it easy for robots to identify things. David suggested to use simple tags with unique numbers to identify objects and to use the network to download information about the objects. The team modified a microwave oven to include an RFID reader, tagged a few microwave-ready meals, and created a database with cooking instructions. The demo system was used to convince management to fund the project. It was clear from the beginning that putting RFID tags on everything would require cheaper tags than what existed at the time. MIT logo
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 6 TagMaster AB The Low-cost Tag Chipless and non-silicon tags were investigated but rejected due to performance reasons. The cheapest useful tag was then a passive tag with a single chip (no battery, no crystal). The largest share of the cost of a chip-based tag is the chip cost. To minimize chip cost it was necessary to use small memories and simple protocols. At the same time the simplification had advantages: simpler chip lower power consumption longer read range simpler protocols fit more user applications Minimalist protocols were developed together with chip manufacturers New manufacturing methods were developed Free software was developed for the network part of the EPC system EPC tag (chip + antenna)
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 7 TagMaster AB EPCglobal and GS1 By 2002, the research at Auto-ID Labs was getting more applied and the commerical demands (e.g. selling EPC numbers) started to grow. A new not-for-profit organization called EPCglobal was created in 2003 as a joint venture between the bar code organizations UCC and EAN. MIT licensed the EPC technology for free. UCC and EAN has now merged into GS1. GS1 EPCglobal logo
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 8 TagMaster AB EPCglobal Standards
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 9 TagMaster AB EPC Gen 2 Tag Protocol
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 10 TagMaster AB Physical Layer - Reader Tag The reader sends information to one or more tags by modulating an RF carrier using amplitude shift keying (ASK) The data is pulse-interval encoded (PIE) The tags receive their energy from the modulated carrier 1 1 0
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 11 TagMaster AB Physical Layer - Reader Tag ASK is very simple to demodulate - no radio receiver is required PIE assures that power is available for both ones and zeroes "WISP" EPC Gen 2 tag - receiver Demodulation Power harvesting
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 12 TagMaster AB Physical Layer - Tag Reader Tags backscatter modulate the amplitude and/or phase of the carrier Communication is half duplex to simplify tag design (tags do not have to receive while backscattering) "WISP" EPC Gen 2 tag - backscattering circuit
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 13 TagMaster AB Frequency Channels Different frequencies are available in different parts of the world US: MHz, 50 channels, frequency hopping, 4W eirp EU: MHz, 4 channels, 2W erp, each channel may be used up to 4 s then it has to be silent for 100 ms These frequency bands are ISM (Industrial, Scientific and Medical) bands that are used by different kinds of equipment – not only RFID EPCglobal regularly publishes a document about frequency regulations around the world: Regulatory status for using RFID in the UHF spectrum The latest version was published 8 March 2013 and is available at
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 14 TagMaster AB XT-2/XT-3: Physical Layer Control The output power can be controlled with the "Read level" settings on the web interface or using the TAGP variables READ_LEVEL1 and READ_LEVEL2 (1 = internal antenna, 2 = external antenna). The value is specified as "percent of maximum read range" In Europe it is allowed to select which of the four available channels to use. This is done with the "EPC Channel Mask" setting on the web interface or the TAGP variable EPC_CHMASK. The value is specified as a hexadecimal bitmask (1 to F) where bit 0 corresponds to the lowest available channel.
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 15 TagMaster AB XT-2/XT-3: Duty Cycling To minimize interference it is good to limit the time the radio is active. Different applications have different requirements In a parking application it may be ok if a tag is read within one second. In a train application it may be required to read a tag within 50 milliseconds. The XT-2/XT-3 readers support duty cycling Randomized off time (if enabled) assures that two readers are not always active at the same time.
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 16 TagMaster AB Tag Memory EPC Gen 2 tags have four memory banks 0x00: Reserved 0x01: EPC 0x02: TID 0x03: User
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 17 TagMaster AB Bank 0x00: Reserved Memory Reserved Memory contains the kill and access passwords if implemented on the tag. The kill password is a 32-bit value. A reader may use the kill password to recommission or kill a tag. A tag without kill password or with an all-zero password cannot be killed or recommissioned. The access password is a 32-bit value. A tag with a non-zero access password requires the reader to issue this password before transitioning to the secured state.
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 18 TagMaster AB Bank 0x01: EPC Memory EPC Memory contains the following information: StoredCRC is a CRC-16 that covers StoredPC and EPC StoredPC contains the following fields: EPC length User Memory Indicator (UMI) XPC_W1 Indicator (XI) Numbering System Identifier (NSI) Bit 17 = 0 EPCglobal application Bit 17 = 1 non-EPCglobal application (ISO/IEC 15961) EPC contains the Electronic Product Code. The format is defined in Tag Data Standards for EPCglobal applications and in ISO/IEC for non-EPCglobal applications. XPC contains Extended Protocol Control bits
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 19 TagMaster AB Bank 0x02: TID Memory TID Memory starts with an ISO/IEC class identifier that is either 0xE0 or 0xE2. If the class identifier is 0xE0, the rest of TID contains an 8-bit manufacturer identifier and a 48-bit serial number that together form a unique 64-bit ID. If the class identifier is 0xE2, the rest of TID contains a 12-bit mask designer identifier, a 12-bit tag model number and other data as specified in Tag Data Standards. TID memory is permalocked at manufacturing.
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 20 TagMaster AB Bank 0x03: User Memory User Memory is optional and allows user-specific data storage. For EPCglobal applications, the encoding of user memory shall be as defined in the Tag Data Standards. For non-EPCglobal applications, the encoding of user memory shall be as defined in ISO/IEC and ISO/IEC
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 21 TagMaster AB Select, Inventory and Access A reader manages a tag population using three basic operations: Select - Choosing a tag population "A Select command may be applied successively to select a particular Tag population based on user-specified criteria." Inventory - Identifying tags "An interrogator begins an inventory round by transmitting a Query command in one of four sessions. One or more Tags may reply. The interrogator detects a single Tag reply and requests the PC/XPC word(s), EPC and CRC from the Tag." Access - Reading and writing to a tag "An individual Tag must be uniquely identified prior to access. Access comprises multiple commands, some of which employ one-time-pad based cover-coding of the R=>T link." Quotes from EPC Gen 2 specification
T link." Quotes from EPC Gen 2 specification">
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 22 TagMaster AB Selected Flag Tags implement a single selected flag (SL) A reader can assert or deassert SL using a Select command. A parameter in the Query command allows a reader to inventory tags that have SL either asserted or deasserted. A tag is selected as long it is energized and at least two seconds after the tag has lost power.
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 23 TagMaster AB XT-2/XT-3: Select The tag population to inventory can be specified on the web interface or with the TAGP variable EPC_SELECT. Format:,,, ! can be placed before to invert the selection. * can be used as a wildcard to select all available tags. Examples: EPC_SELECT = EPC,32,16,%AB%BA EPC_SELECT = !USR,0,8,%AA
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 24 TagMaster AB Sessions and Inventoried Flags Tags provide four sessions: S0, S1, S2 and S3 Readers can use sessions to independently inventory a common population of tags Tags have an independent inventoried flag for each session. Each inventoried flag has one of two possible values: A or B. For each inventory round, a reader chooses to inventory either A or B tags in one of the four sessions. When a tag has been inventoried the flag is usually inverted (A B or B A). Inventoried flags in different sessions have different persistence times: S0: As long as tag is energized S1: 500 ms < persistence < 5 s S2: Forever when tag is energized; otherwise at least 2 s S3: Forever when tag is energized; otherwise at least 2 s Tags start with their inventoried flags set to A. Flags in different sessions revert back to A when the tag has been without power for the session's persistence time.
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 25 TagMaster AB XT-2/XT-3: Sessions and Inventoried Flags The session to use for inventories can be selected on the web interface or using the TAGP variable EPC_SESSION. The target (either A or B tags) can be set on the web interface or using the TAGP variable EPC_TARGET.
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 26 TagMaster AB Inventory/Q Algorithm The reader starts an inventory round with the Query command The Query command contains a parameter Q (0 Q 15). Tags that receive a Query command pick a random number in the range 0 to 2 Q -1 and load the value into their slot-counter. If the random number is zero the tag replies immediately. The reader sends QueryRep commands to decrease the tags' slot- counters. When a tag's slot-counter reaches zero the tag replies.
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 27 TagMaster AB Choosing the Q Value A large Q value makes it possible to have many tags in the lobe but the inventory takes "a long time". If it is known that a limited number of tags are in the lobe, a smaller Q value makes the inventory round faster. In high-speed applications (a train passing a reader) it is not possible to wait for a random time. The tag may be gone before it has been read. As long as we know that there is only one tag in the lobe we can set Q = 0. If there are more tags in the lobe, the tag with the strongest response (usually the tag closest to the reader) will be read.
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 28 TagMaster AB XT-2/XT-3: Inventory and Q1 (2) When Carrier 1 or Carrier 2 is On (TAGP variables CARRIER1 and CARRIER2) the reader automatically inventories tags on the respective antennas (1 = internal, 2 = external). The length of each inventory round is specified by EPC On Time (TAGP variable EPC_ONTIME). The time between inventory rounds is specified by EPC Off Time (TAGP variable EPC_OFFTIME). If EPC Random Off Time is On (TAGP variable EPC_RANDTIME) the off time is randomized between 0 and EPC_OFFTIME.
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 29 TagMaster AB XT-2/XT-3: Inventory and Q2 (2) EPC Q (TAGP variable EPC_Q) specifies the Q value. If EPC_Q = -1 the reader dynamically adjusts the Q value. A special mode is available for high-speed applications. This mode is activated by setting EPC Single Tag Mode to On (TAGP variable EPC_SINGLE). When EPC Single Tag Mode is enabled, each tag is reported as soon as it has been read.
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 30 TagMaster AB XT-2/XT-3: Time to Read a Single Tag It takes around 7 milliseconds to read a tag in EPC Single Tag Mode. 7.4 ms
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 31 TagMaster AB SecureMarkID
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 32 TagMaster AB Standard EPC tags do not have a unique ID A tags EPC data is user programmable The data can be locked to prevent modification, but… … it is very easy to copy the data to another tag that can be modified This is bad for parking applications! TagMaster provides SecureMarkID tags with a unique ID
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 33 TagMaster AB SecureMarkID 1 (2) SecureMarkID is an encryption solution created by TagMaster that will ensure that each tag has a unique TagMaster identity The identity of the tag cannot be copied or duplicated The SecureMarkID information is protected and cannot be accidentally overwritten No other EPC Gen 2 tag, regardless of tag supplier, will have the same identity or even the same coincidental data content The identity will be unique also considering the range of identities of the TagMaster 2.45 GHz tags WindShield ID-tag
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 34 TagMaster AB SecureMarkID2 (2) The identity is fully compatible with existing software for TagMaster readers The identities of tags using SecureMarkID are delivered in sequential running order, and the identity is printed on the Windshield tag type. Partners selecting SecureMarkID for the stated benefits, can expect recurring business from the corresponding installations, as only TagMaster can provide SecureMarkID tags
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 35 TagMaster AB XT-2/XT-3: SecureMarkID/EPC Emulation SecureMarkID tags are reported in the same way as 2.45 GHz MarkTags. Old applications can be used without modification! The reader can be configured to read EPC tags, SecureMarkID tags or both with the EPC Memory Bank setting on the web interface (TAGP variable EPC_MEMBANK). EPC tags are normally reported as OpenLen tags. To use EPC tags with old applications that expect MarkTags it is possible to enable EPC Emulation in the reader (TAGP variable EPC_EMULATION). When EPC_EMULATION=MARKTAG the reader takes the least significant 28 bits of the EPC and reports the tag as a MarkTag.
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 36 TagMaster AB The XT Series
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 37 TagMaster AB The XT Series The XT series consists of readers and tags for the EPC Gen 2 / ISO C standards (UHF, MHz) The XT series complements TagMasters 2.45 GHz readers and tags
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 38 TagMaster AB XT series vs LR series Standards Compliant EPC Gen 2/ISO C Passive tags (without battery) Read range: 5 m Regional regulations US: MHz, 4 W eirp EU: MHz, 2 W erp Internal + optional external antenna Proprietary Battery assisted tags Read range: 3 – 14 m Global regulations GHz, 1-75 mW Internal antenna Many tags, few readers Premium performance
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 39 TagMaster AB As Much as Possible is the Same The XT-series readers are based on the same platform as the LR- series readers. As much as possible is the same. It is possible to mix XT and LR readers in the same installation LR-series software runs unmodified on XT readers. Modifications may be needed to use all capabilities of EPC Gen 2 tags to use multiple antennas
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 40 TagMaster AB Multiple Antennas XT-2/XT-3 support an optional external antenna RP-TNC connector 2,5 / 5 meter antenna cable The antennas are active one at a time. The reader automatically switches between the antennas The antennas can share the same frequency channel without interfering with each other Maximum passage speed is halved when using two antennas XT-2 readerAntenna antenna cable
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 41 TagMaster AB Multiple Antenna Scenarios Two antennas – one barrier/gate Two antennas – two barriers/gates Application doesnt care about antenna Old GEN4 applications work as is WiseMan/WatchMan/PassMan Customer specific software Application must know source antenna Tag event metadata (TAGP/taglib) Old GEN4 applications must be adapted Enable tag event metadata Use multiple databases Use multiple output interfaces etc.
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 42 TagMaster AB Multiple Antennas – Interface Considerations Adding an external antenna does not duplicate the interfaces. Remember this when designing your system! The two outputs may be used to control different barriers but there is only one relay and only one Wiegand/Mag-stripe interface. RS485 and Ethernet are useful interfaces for communicating with multiple devices. Relay InputsOutputs Power Supply Tamper Wiegand RS485 RS232 Service USB Host Expansion board µSD card (on other side) Ethernet Buzzer Visual Indicators
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 43 TagMaster AB Installation - Reader External antenna connector (RP-TNC) Cable gland for all other connections (cable gland included, cable not included) Screw terminals inside (as in LR readers) Mounting kit for wall and pole mounting is available
TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 44 TagMaster AB Installation – External Antenna Antenna cables are available in two lengths: 2.5 m and 5 m Output power and cable attenuation are tuned to give the best possible performance while staying within regulations. Use only specified cables from TagMaster! The reader supports antenna detection to prevent that antenna power is switched on when no antenna is connected. Note that detection is impossible while power is on. If the antenna is disconnected when power is on the reader will be damaged! XT-2 readerAntenna antenna cable Cable connected to external antenna
VAC TagMaster Training Module T5, Page 45 TagMaster AB End