Презентация по теме «Погода и здоровье» Автор: преподаватель английского языка И.В. Кириллова. - презентация
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Презентация по теме «Погода и здоровье» Автор: преподаватель английского языка И.В. Кириллова
The plan of the presentation Climate Change, Greenhouse Effect, and Global Warming. Definitions. Greenhouse gases Evidence of global warming Impact(s) of climate change Impact on health
Climate change refers to any distinct change in measures of climate lasting for a long period of time, including major changes in temperature, rainfall, snow, or wind patterns lasting for decades or longer.
Global warming is an average increase in temperatures near the Earths surface and in the lowest layer of the atmosphere.
Five major health impacts of climate change 1.Malnutrition 2.Deaths and injuries caused by storms and floods. (Flooding can also be followed by outbreaks of diseases, such as cholera) 3.Water scarcity / contamination (droughts and sudden floods) – increased burden of diarrhoeal disease. 4.Heatwaves – direct increases in morbidity and mortality; indirect effects via increases in ground- level ozone, contributing to asthma attacks. 5.Vector-borne disease – malaria and dengue.
Health impact of climate change Air pollution - a reduction in the cold, calm winter weather associated with winter air pollution episodes together with reduced emissions of key pollutants including particles, oxides of nitrogen and sulphurdioxide could lead to a reduction (up to 50%) in the adverse health effects of winter air pollution. A small overall increase in the number of summer ozone episodes coupled with a longer-term increase in background levels of ozone could cause a rise in the number of premature deaths.
Likely increases in: Sunburn Skin cancer Possibly cataracts Exposure to ultra violet radiation
Health impact of climate change Flooding – increased frequency of severe coastal and river floods, Analysis of more recent river flooding shows that mental health problems are the most important health impact among flood victims due to experience of personal and economic loss and stress.
Health impact of climate change Vector-borne diseases – various diseases transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks are climate- sensitive and can increase or be introduced due to climate change. Malaria might be re-established in non-endemic areas. Potential emergence of other vector-borne diseases, such as West Nile Fever.
Health impact of climate change Food poisoning - higher temperatures in summer could cause an estimated 10,000 extra cases of salmonella infection per year. Storms – any increase in the frequency of severe winter storms could lead to an increase in personal injuries from flying debris and falling trees.
Health impact of climate change Water-borne disease – climate change might increase levels of cryptosporidium and campylobacter in water. Secure sanitation systems should safeguard supplies of drinking water, but possible contamination of stormwater outflows could carry disease into basements and nearby rivers, affecting the health of residents and river users.
Due to both direct & indirect effects: Increased physical activity due to extended warm weather. But, outcomes could be worse due to extreme heat Reduced obesity and road traffic injuries through active transport Possibly healthy eating through adoption of sustainable farming & food policy and diets containing less animal products Reduced respiratory illness by improvements in air quality Increased home energy efficiency reducing temperature-related illness Potential health benefits