The project work of the 10-th grade students of school 6 of the town of Alexandrov of Vladimir region. Teacher: Ved Galina Alexandrovna. 2009 -2010. - презентация
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The project work of the 10-th grade students of school 6 of the town of Alexandrov of Vladimir region. Teacher: Ved Galina Alexandrovna
Nowadays it is impossible to imagine our life without technological inventions. We can not do without them and our lives depend on them a lot. Some people suppose inventions to be the most important things on the way to progress, but others think that they make us unable to do a lot of useful and necessary actions that help humans to be healthy, sporty and smart. Where is the truth? Lets try to look at the problem and to find out the answer.
In 1829 Georg and Robert Stephenson built the thirst steam train. Nicephore Niepce from France pioneered photography in In 1870 the first bicycles appeared. In 1876 Alexander Graham Bell, an American engineer, invented telephone. Karl Benz produced the worlds first petrol – driven motor car in Germany in In 1895 the Lumiere brothers patented their cinematography.
Wilbur and Orville Wright built the first airplane in 1903, USA. In 1908 James M. Spangler from the USA built the first vacuum cleaner. In 1908 US automobile manufacturer Henry Ford created the worlds first car assembly line. John Logie Baird from Scotland invented television in In the 1930s the first washing machine came up. Sergey Korolev from Russia designed the first artificial satellite in In 1981 Bill Gates, USA, created Microsoft –DOS (Disk Operating System). (По материалам Английский язык: Учеб. Для кл. В.П. Кузовлев, Н. М. Лапа, Э. Ш. Перегудова и др. – М.: Просвещение, 2002 г. С.220.)
James Watt and Steam Engine. The steam engine was invented by Heron, an ancient Greek geometer and engineer from Alexandria. Heron Lived during the first century AD and is sometimes called Hero.
Heron made the steam engine as a toy, and called his device «aeolipile», which means «wind ball» in Greek. The aeolipile is the first known devise to transform steam power into rotary motion. The Greeks never used this remarkable device for anything but a novelty. A steam engine designed for work wasn`t built until James Watt was the man, who later improved the steam engine. James Watt was a Scottish inventor and engineer. In 1765, Watt revolutionized the steam engine, redesigning it so that it was much efficient and four times as powerful as the old steam engines.
Watt`s engines did not waste steam, and had a separate condenser. Watt partnered with the businessman and factory owner Matthew Boulton in 1772, helping to promote Watt`s ideas commercially. Watt also invented a method for converting the up-and down piston movement number of applications for the engine. Watt produced this rotary motion steam engine in It was used for many applications, including draining mines, powering looms in textile factories, powering bellows, paper mills. It helped power the Industrial Revolution.
Watt coined the term « horse rover», which he used to his engines. He calculated how many horses it would take to do the work of each engine. One horse rover equals 33,000 foot-pounds of work per minute. It is the power foot in one minute. Parliament granted Watt a patent on his steam engine in 1755, making Watt a very wealthy man. In 1882 (long after Watt`s death), the British Association named the unit of electrical power the «watt». I think, it was a great invention, which opened a new era in the development of mankind. Skotnikova K.
1.Who was the first to invent the steam engine? 2.Did the ancient Greeks use it? Why? 3.Who improved the steam engine? 4.Why were Watts engines more effective? 5.Where was Watts rotary motion steam engine used? 6.What made Watt a very wealthy man? 7.What do we call «watt» now?
Steam Trains. George and Robert Stephenson built the first steam train, the «Rocket», in It had a lot of problems and was very slow. By 1870, trains became more popular and easier to run. By 1895, people started using electric
trains. They were cleaner and quieter than steam trains. By 1920 most countries in Europe had railways. Today there are railways all over the world. They have greatly changed our lives and helped to save a lot of time for travellers.
The first constructors of steam trains in Russia were Yefim and Myron Cherepanovs, talented inventors from the Urals. They were surfs of the popular Demidovs family, who were the owners of a lot of factories at the place. Yefim, the father, was
interested in machine – building and his son Myron helped him to work at the invention of the first steam – engine machine ( in1820 ) and later – steam train ( in ). Yefim studied in England in 1821 and was greatly impressed by the «Rocket», which he saw there. When he came back, he started constructing Russian steam train and gained success, which helped him not only revolutionize travelling, but to get freedom for his family. Now Russia has the longest railway system in the world. Modern trains are fast and comfortable. People can find beds, restaurants, watch TV and listen to the radio there. No doubt, the invention of the train was a great step toward progress.
I think there are only advantages in the invention of trains, because to travel long distances in old days was tiring, uncomfortable and dangerous. Travelling by train nowadays is not the fastest, but convenient and not very expensive. Gerasimenko M.
1.Who are supposed to be the inventors of the steam train? 2.Who were Yefim and Myron Cherepanovs? 3.Was Yefim Cherepanov an educated man? 4.What country has the longest railway system in the world? 5.Is it comfortable to travel by train now? 6.Do you agree that the invention of the steam train had a great influence on the development of progress?
The first automobile was designed by Nicholas Joseph Cugnot in France in It was made according to the order of the War Minister of France Etienne Francois, who wanted to get a practical transport for the needs of the Army. Cugnot and his colleague Brezin constructed the first steam engine automobile in the Arsenal in Paris.
It was primitive and very slow ( its speed was only 4 km per hour ), but it could help carry up to 5 tons of load. Later a passenger variant of the automobile was made by the inventors, but it was very insecure and in 1771 the production of it was stopped. However, it was the beginning of the history of the automobile.
Now it is not possible to live without automobiles. Cars take you where you want to go. You can travel freely and comfortably and it doesnt take you much time. Some people think there too many cars in our streets now and they pollute the atmosphere. I agree with it, but my opinion is that in the near future we will have new
type of fuel, which will be nature friendly and probably we will be able to solve the problems of traffic jams with the help of flying automobiles. Bogachev Andrey.
1.Who was the first designer of the automobile? 2.Why was it invented? 3.What was the speed of the first automobile? 4.Why was the production of the first automobile stopped? 5.Do modern cars pollute the atmosphere? 6.Can people solve the problem of traffic jams now?
People wanted to look smart through all the time. They dreamt to have clean and accurate clothes. So, the thirst irons appeared. They were very heavy and hot because people made them from iron and heated in the fire. Later they decided to put hot charcoal inside. There were irons
which worked with the help of spirit that burnt inside, but they were not very good and the flammable liquid often burnt the clothes. Due to the inventor Earl Richardson the first electric iron was made in1903. He convinced some of housewives to test it. The New invention became very successful, though it was too
hot in the center and not hot enough at the edges. Richardson produced an advanced model in1905.Now at the market there is a number of various models of irons. They are light, multifunctional and even wireless. Some of them have a special device which helps not to spoil clothes. No doubt that it is a very useful and helpful invention. Klyauzova Marina.
1.Why did people begin to use irons? 2.What characteristics did the first irons have? 3.Who invented the first electric iron? 4.Was it successful? 5.What disadvantages did the first electric iron have? 6.When was the advanced model of the electric iron produced? 7.Can you imagine your life without this device?
Photo camera is a very necessary thing. Nicephore Niepce from France pioneered photography in And the first digital camera was made by the company of «Nicolette» in With it we can take picture of important moments of life and to save them for memory. We
need it badly now. With modern photo cameras it is possible not only to take pictures, but also to take some videos. Its a new function of the photo camera. Every year cameras are becoming much more comfortable to operate. They are so small now that it is very easy to take them on a trip, because they dont occupy a lot of space.
Digital cameras have memory cards inside, but not films and you can take a lot of pictures with their help. If You need to enlarge your photo – it is possible to do it too, because modern cameras remind of computers a lot. Some people cant even imagine their lives without digital cameras because it is a very convenient device.
1.Who pioneered photography? 2.When was the first digital camera made? 3.Why is the invention of the photo camera important? 4.What functions do modern photo cameras have? 5.Do modern photo cameras have films inside? 6.Why are digital photo cameras convenient? 7.Do you have a digital photo camera? How often do you use it?
The radio is one of the greatest achievements of human genius. The priority in the invention of the radio belongs to the Russian scientist Popov. On the 7th of May we celebrate Radio Day because on that day in 1895 the Russian scientist
Alexander Popov demonstrated his first radio set to a meeting of the Russian Physical and Chemical Society. A. S. Popov was born in 1859 in the Urals. While he was at school he spent all his free time on physics and mathematics. He studied at St. Petersburg University and graduated from it with honour, but he was not satisfied with the conditions of the laboratories of the University and accepted the post of a teacher in the Mining School in Kronstadt. There he began his research in electrical engineering. The greater part of his life he devoted to the problem of the application of electromagnetic waves to wireless communication. Popov worked on a
sensitive receiving set which could pick up even the weakest radio waves. The year of 1895 is considered to be the date of the invention of the Radio when Popov demonstrated his radio receiving set in use. The first report consisted of two words «Henry Hertz ».By the end of the year he improved his apparatus. It
was the first radio receiving set in the world. Since then, the art of radio communication has progressed a great deal. The radio has brought great changes to our life. It was the « father » of television and computer technology. At present we can get information and listen to music due to the radio. So I think the radio is a very important invention because it gave the start to different others. The radio is still popular now, though there are a lot of other inventions, which are more modern and more up-to date. It helps to convey information, to send urgent messages and to have a good time listening to music as well. Kondrashova O.
1.Who does the priority of the invention of the radio belong to? 2.When was the first radio demonstrated? 3.Wha did A. Popov devote the greatest part of his life to ? 4.What did the first radio report consist of? 5.Has the art of radio communication progressed since then? 6.Why is the radio believed to be a great invention? 7.Do your like to listen to music on the radio?
The Thermometer was invented by Galileo Galilei in His thermometer consisted of water in a glass bulb. The water moved up and down the bulb as the temperature changed. The sealed thermometer was later invented by the Grand Duke Ferdinand the Second in 1641, but Galileo was the first. (По материалам «Методическая мозаика» 4, 2003г. С.32.)
Galileo Galilei( ) was an Italian astronomer, philosopher, and mathematician whose invention of the telescope revolutionized astronomy and paved the way for the acceptance of the Copernican Heliocentric System. Galilei was the first to use the newly invented telescope to study celestial objects. In 1609 Galileo heard that a new instrument had been invented in the Holland which made objects in the distance seem close to the observer. Galileo tried to create his own instrument using a variety of lenses and he soon succeeded in making a basic telescope using a concave and a convex lens at either end of a lead tube. At the third attempt he produced a telescope that made objects
appear times larger and over thirty times closer than it is seen with the naked eye. Although Galileo could see the importance of the telescope's aid to navigation at sea and over land, he was most interested in its use to look at the skies. Through the telescope, Galileo observed the surface of the moon and planned to improve the device in the future. Nowadays powerful telescopes help us to study distant stars, planets and galaxies, understand the processes on the Earth. Koplyakova S.
1.Who was the inventor of the first thermometer? 2.Who invented the sealed thermometer later? 3.Who was Galileo Galilei? 4.What did he constructed with the help of a variety of lenses? 5.What importance of the telescope did Galilei see? 6.How do we use the telescope now?
After the invention of the plane it has been improved a lot of times. The construction of the first airplane opened a new era in transportation and travelling. Modern planes look like flying buses that is why they are called aero buses sometimes. They are comfortable, quick and save.
The leader of plane building industry is Boeing corporation. Boeing 757 is the most wide – spread passenger plane nowadays. Airways values these planes for economy and reliability. The most popular are twin – engine Boeings. The use of such modernized planes has improved the financial
condition of many airway corporations all over the world. The new type of planes make transatlantic flights between the eastern seaside of the north America and western Europe possible. Planes help us to cover long distances in short time and do it with much comfort. Im sure that it is really a great invention. Bedretdinova E.
1.What did the construction of the first air plane change in our lives? 2.Are modern planes different from the first ones? 3.What are the characteristics of the modern planes? 4.What corporation is the leader of the plane building industry? 5.Why do people value Boeing 757? 6.What role do modern planes play in the world now?
A lot of inventions appeared in peoples lives to make their existence more comfortable and easier. The names of inventors are still known and remembered by grateful descendants. The inventions help us to save much time for our hobbies and interests and to get much freedom from our housework. There is another point of view on the problem. A lot of people suppose that all the inventions make us lazy, passive and unhealthy, but if you are sensible, you will always have something interesting to do in your free time and if you care of your health, you will go to a sports club to have some exercises to keep fit.
We used some resources of the Internet in our presentation: pictures and information, which was shortened and translated into English. Thank You for Your attention. Top students of school 6 of Alexandrov.