Nation-States & Society/Politics Before World War I
Unit VII Objectives 1.Analyze how the forces of nationalism and liberalism was carried out by conservatives in the late 19 th century. 2. What is realpolitik and how does this relate to the Crimean War and the Unifications of Italy and Germany? 3. Analyze French politics from the era of Napoleon III to the unstable early years of the 3 rd Republic. 4. Analyze how the Dual Monarchy evolved from the failure of 1848 to the Augsleich of 1867 to the years previous to World War I. 5. Analyze how Russia went from repression to reform and back to repression in the second half of the 19 th century. 6. Analyze the evolution of democracy in Great Britain in the second half of the 19 th century to World War I. 7. Analyze the continued population trends and its effects in perpetuating the Second Industrial Revolution. 8. Analyze the continued ascendency of the middle class and differences within it. 9. Analyze the development of major urban areas in the late 19 th century. 10. Analyze the development of political feminism and the life of women of differing social classes in the late 19 th century.
War Fulfilled led to changes in -Crimean War -GB/Fr/Piedmo nt vs. Russia -Realpolitik -(Piedmont)Itali an Unification -Cavour -Garibaldi - (Prussia)German Unification Bismarck 3 Wars Den Aus Fr - -France -Paris Commune -3 rd Republic -Dreyfus Affair -Austria -Dual Monarchy -Augsleich -Reichsrat -Russia -Reforms of Alex II -Rev. Groups -Great Britain -2 nd Reform Bill -Disreali & Gladstone Population Explosion -2-2 nd Ind. Revolution -S-Steel, Oil, Chemicals, Electricity -M-Middle Class Ascendency -S-Suffrage & consumerism -P-Petit bourgeousie -19 th Century Urban Life -C-Clean up cities -W-Women in the 19 th century -W-Work & Political Feminism -J-Jewish Emancipation Reform in -Trade Unions -Politically Organize -Suffrage brings Political Parties -Marxist Influenced - 1 st Internl. -Great Britain -Fabians -Labour Party -France -Empire to 3 rd Rep. -Oppurtunism -Germany -SPD -Russia -Mens/Bols emerged through saw some of the goals of With familiar trends continuing In late 19 th century saw working class movements War & Unification Liberalism & Nationalism Society Nation-States & Society/Politic s Politics
Paris London ENGLAND FRANCE Mediterranean Sea. Amsterdam NETHERLANDS William and Mary replace James II in the Glorious Revolution in They make the English Bill of Rights in Revolution ends monarchy. French go from monarchy to democracy to monarchy. AFRICA EUROPE Austria France Great Britain Spain Nether lands Swiss Sardinia- Piedmont Kingdom of Naples Papal States Rep of Venice Italian States Europe Prussia Confederation of the Rhine (German States) Kingdom of Sweden Following the Wars, nationalism threatened to breakup the empires of,, and the. However, when nationalistic uprisings failed in 1848, governments with ambitious politicians began scheming to achieve nationalistic aspirations. and will achieve unification through a policy referred to as. The state of under Cavours influence will dupe into helping him driven the out of Northern Italy, in exchange for the states of and. Meanwhile, Cavour encourages to take his 1000 to Sicily and lead an uprising there. Cavour will and north and Garibaldi the south. North of Italy, Bismarck from the state of is planning three wars to unify under Prussian leadership. First, he will fight over and. Then he will fight and remove their influence from the States and unify Germany. Lastly, he will fight in the and this victory will lead to complete in Denmark Portugal Napoleonicnationalism AustriaRussia Ottoman Empire conservative Cavour Bismarck realpolitik Piedmont Napoleon III Nice Austrians Savoy GaribaldiRed Shirts unify Prussia Germany DenmarkSchleswig HolsteinAustria German Northern FranceFranco-Prussian War unification Belg Schlewig/ Holstein Nice Savoy
Liberalism and Nationalism VII. Nationalism, laced with liberal ideas will spread rapidly throughout West Eur during the 2nd half of the 1800s. I.After the revolutions of 1848, it looked as if the cause of liberalism and nationalism had been lost. II.During the 1850s, conservatives dominated Europe. III.Conservatives began to embrace some of the ideas of liberalism and conservatism. IV. Events within Eur and internl affairs compelled some govts to pursue new policies. V. Conservative leaders had to find new means of maintaining the loyalty of subjects. VI. Some carried out popular policies on their own terms. A.Able to take the credit instead of liberal leaders. The failure of the Revolutions of 1848 did not end nationalistic aspirations!
The Crimean War IV.His chance to do so came about through the weakening Ottoman Empire. I.In order to quiet discontent at home, Napoleon III tried to win glory abroad. II.Napoleons biggest foreign problem involved Russia and Nicholas I. A.Nicholas considered Napoleon an upstart and was slow to recognize him as the real ruler of France. III.Napoleons goal was to gain the support of Britain in his opposition to Russia. Photograph of soldiers in the Crimean War
Crimean War Continued IV.In the 1850s, both France and Russia claimed jurisdiction over certain holy places in Palestine. Crimean War Map I.The Ottoman Empire was known as The Sick Man of Europe. A. the government was weak, corrupt, and inefficient. B. Religious and nationalist groups were dissatisfied II.Because of earlier agreements, Russia claimed to right to protect all Orthodox Christians living under the rule of the Ottoman Turks. III.France was the protector of Catholics there.
Crimean War 1.Florence Nightingale 2.International Red Cross Charge of the Light Brigade Florence Nightingale I.The Crimean War has been called the most unnecessary war in history. A.fought inefficiently and wastefully 1.Charge of the Light Brigade (Lord Alfred Tennyson) British cavalry cut down by Russian cannon fire B.The most memorable military action was the 11 month siege of Sevastopol (Russian naval base). C.Almost the only constructive result of the war was the establishment of modern field hospitals and nursing staffs.
Treaty of Paris (1856) 2.Costly in number dead, and financially. Representatives at the Treaty of Paris I.After two years of fighting, with huge losses from battle and disease on both sides, Russia was defeated. (Treaty of Paris, 1856) A.Gave up its claims to protect the Christians in the Ottoman Empire. 1.Forbidden to build up a navy in the Black Sea. 2.The Ottoman Empire was to be protected as a member of the European family of nations. B.France won glory but little else from the Crimean War. 1.None of the peace terms benefited France.
Crimean War "Forward, the Light Brigade!" Was there a man dismay'd? Not tho' the soldiers knew Some one had blunder'd: Their's not to make reply Their's not to reason why, Their's but to do and die: Into the valley of Death Rode the Six Hundred.
Unifying Italy E.Between the years of 1820 and 1848, several revolts occurred in Italy, but Austrian forces put them all down. I.Italy of the 1800s had a long history of independent states. A.Frequent warfare and foreign rule had led people to identify with local regions. B.Just as in Germany, Italian nationalism was affected by Napoleons invasion. C.After the defeat of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna kept Italy divided and ruled by various powers. D.In response, nationalists organized secret patriotic societies, which concentrated on expelling the Austrians from Italy.
Mazzinis Young Italy 3.Others believed it made economic sense. Romantic Republican Nationalist I.Failure of Liberalism and Nationalism in Italy through revolution A.In the 1830s, a young nationalist leader named Giuseppi Mazzini founded Young Italy. 1.The goal of this society was to create a republic in Italy. a.In 1849, Mazzini helped set up a revolutionary republic in Rome, but French forces soon put it down. b. Mazzini spent the next several years in exile. 2. Nationalists such as Mazzini promoted a unified Italy not only because of geography, but also a common language and culture. a.A unified Italy would promote trade betw/ the Italian states b.encourage the building of railroads, and stimulate industry.
The Struggle for Italy ii.Cavour believed in Realpolitik like Bismarck. I.Italian Unification (nationalism fulfilled) from above not from below A.After 1848, the small province of Sardinia led the leadership of the Italian nationalist movement, called Risorgimento. 1.Piedmont Sardinia led by Victor Emmanuel II. a.In appointed Count Camillo Cavour as prime minister. i.Cavour would use his diplomatic ability to work for Italian unification. Camillo di Cavour- unifier of Northern Italy
Intrigue with France A Swiss banker named Jean-Henri Dunant, created the Red Cross after witnessing 40,000 casualties in one battle of the Crimean War. Italian Unification Map I.Steps Toward Unification A.Cavours goal was to expel Austria and unite Lombardy and Venetia under Sardinian rule. 1.In 1855, Sardinia aided Britain and France in the Crimean War against Russia. 2.Sardinia gained an ally in France and Napoleon III. 3.In 1858, he negotiated a secret treaty with France gaining their support in case of war with Austria 4.In 1859, Cavour provoked a war with Austria and with French aid, was victorious. 5.From the victory, Sardinia annexed Lombardy. a.At the same time, other northern Italian states gained their independence from Austria and voted to join with Sardinia. 6.An important result of the battles was the creation of the International Red Cross.
Garibaldis Red Shirts C.With relative ease, Garibaldi conquered Sicily and then Naples. Guisseppe Garibaldi I.Romantic Republican Unifies Southern Italy A.Garibaldi and Mazzini formed a brief republic in , but collapse under the power of the duchies. B.The nationalist movement next focused in the Kingdom of the Two Sicily's. 1.The leader of the movement was Giuseppi Garibaldi. 2.In 1860, with weapons provided by Cavour, Garibaldi led 1,000 Red- shirted volunteers into Sicily.
Unity at Last Italian troops moved in and Rome became the capital of the new nation. Even though he had aided Garibaldi, Cavour feared the nationalist hero would set up a republic in the south. To prevent this, Cavour sent troops to defeat Garibaldi. In a patriotic move, Garibaldi turned over Naples and Sicily to Victor Emmanuel. In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was named king of Italy. Two areas remained outside of the new Italian kingdom: Venetia and Rome. Venetia became part of the new kingdom as part of the peace treaty of the Austro-Prussian War. During the Franco-Prussian War, France was forced to withdraw troops from Rome.
Trials of the New Nation Italy faced problems due to its long history of disunity. The greatest regional division was between the wealthy, industrial north, and the poorer, agricultural south. Another conflict involved the new government and the Catholic Church. The Church resented the seizure of the Papal States. The government granted the Church a small section of land called the Vatican, which still exists today. Northern and Central Italy Relatively prosperous while Southern Italy is poor.
Trials of the New Nation Another problem involved the structure of the new government. Though it had a bicameral legislature, power rested with the king. During the late 1800s, radicals fought against the new government. Socialists organized worker strikes. Anarchists used sabotage and violence as a means to end all forms of government. Government reforms came slowly, but the unrest continued. To distract attention at home, Italy set out to win an overseas empire. Despite its problems, Italy grew economically and socially. By 1914, Italy was much better off than it had been in 1861, but it was not ready to be drawn into World War I.
Unification of Germany During the First and Third Coalitions, Prussia was defeated by Napoleon. France Instills Nationalism Napoleon at the Battle of Jena (1806) After 1812, Prussia began to rebuild its army and helped defeat Napoleon at the Battle of the Nations. German nationalism favored Prussia over Austria. –– Wanted to regain the greatness of Prussia under Frederick the Great. –– The restrictions placed on Prussia by the French helped stimulate patriotic demands for nationalism. Napoleon dominated Prussia from 1806 to 1812.
German Unity After 1815, Napoleons Conf of the Rhine was replaced with the German Confederation. The Zollverein Customs Union (Economic Unity) » It provided the German states with a large variety of products at lower prices, –– The Zollverein benefited members by making prices lower and more uniform. » Abolished tariffs in all territories. – In 1831, the Junker class (aristocratic landowners) convinced the king to abolish tariffs, within his territories. The Zollverein The populations vast majority were German. The new government was well-organized and efficient, with a strong economy. Prussia gained territory in Saxony and along the Rhine.
The Revolutions of 1848 In the years after the Congress of Vienna, there were strong nationalistic and democratic movements within the states of the German Confederation. Metternich issues the Carlsbad Decrees Everywhere there were demands for constitutions, establishing representative, democratic governments. In the revolutionary year of 1848, the uprisings in France touched off political agitation in much of Germany. –– Though professors and students had been stopped in 1819, by Metternich and his Carlsbad Decree, they continued to work underground for limited constitutional monarchies. The Revolutions of 1848
Everywhere there were demands for constitutions, establishing representative, democratic governments. The Assembly was disbanded and many liberals realized that military force would be necessary to unite Germany. William, refuses to accept crown from revolutionaries (which he called a crown from the gutter). In an act of desperation, the National Assembly tried to save national unity by offering a German crown to the Prussian king, William IV. In 1849, the princes gathered troops for a bloody repression of the liberals. Frankfurt Assembly met for a year in crown from the gutter
Bismarck and the Prussian State Bismarck was a conservative landlord (Junker) and he hated liberalism, democracy, and socialism. Otto von Bismarck Unifier of Germany First, however, an increase in taxes was needed. They agreed that it was necessary to reorganize the Prussian army and strengthen it even more. For years, Bismarck was virtually the ruler of Prussia and had the cooperation of the king and the two top generals of the army, Count Melmuth von Moltke and Count Albrecht von Roon. Bismarck exercised realpolitik ( politics where success matters more than legality and ideals)
Bismarck & the Prussian State The Prussian parliament refused to appropriate money for a military expansion –– Bismarck dismissed the Parliament –– Collected taxes without their authorization. –– His plan was to stop any criticism with military victories. Bismarck proceeded to make the Prussian army a great war machine. –– Breechloading rifles –– Army reorganized to make it the most efficient in Europe. –– Detailed military planning executed to meet any future invasions. Bismarck & William I
3 Wars of Unification Bismarck had to overcome two major obstacles to increase the power and size of Prussia. –– Drive Austria out of its position of authority in the German Confederation –– Overcome Austrias influence over the southern German states. Bismarck went at these objectives carefully. Instead of attacking Austria directly, he chose a roundabout way.
The Danish War The duchies of Schleswig and Holstein lie between Denmark and Prussia. –– Many of the inhabitants there were German In 1863, Denmark tried to annex these two states. Both Prussia and Austria protested. When Denmark continued and war was declared. –– Denmark had hoped for aid from France and Britain After three months of fighting, Denmark was defeated. –– Prussia administered Schleswig –– Austria administered Holstein. Schleswig & Holstein
The Seven Weeks War Bismarck was now ready to drive Austria out of the German Confederation. –– Persuaded Napoleon III to remain neutral if war developed between Prussia and Austria. –– Form an alliance with the new nation of Italy. » In return for fighting, Italy would receive the Austria territory of Venetia. –– By various complicated moves, Bismarck provoked war with Austria in Austria was supported by Bavaria, Saxony, and Hanover. The efficiency of the Prussian army amazed the world. –– Use of railroads and the telegraph Prussian initiative led to victory over Austria in only seven weeks. Bismarck Franz Joseph
Seven Weeks War Austria was supported by Bavaria, Saxony, and Hanover. The efficiency of the Prussian army amazed the world. –– Use of railroads and the telegraph Prussian initiative led to victory over Austria in only seven weeks. The war ended with the Treaty of Prague (1866) Austria approved the dissolution of the German Confederation and surrendered its rule of Holstein to Prussia. The Italians gained Venetia. Many Prussians wanted Bismarck to crush Austria. However, Bismarck was a shrewd diplomat. –– Wanted Austria out of the Confederation, not as a permanent enemy. –– Wanted the southern German states to join Prussia willingly. In the north, Prussia gained Hanover, Hess- Cassel, and Nassau along with the free city of Frankfurt.
The North German Confederation In 1867, the North German Confederation was formed. –– Each state had self-government –– The king of Prussia was hereditary president of the Confederation Because of its superior army and industry, and with the greatest number of representatives, Prussia dominated the legislature of the Confederation. Only Bavaria, Baden, and Wurttemberg and the southern part of Hesse-Darmstadt remained outside the Confederation. If they could be persuaded to join Prussia, German unity would be complete. However, Catholic and Austrian influence was strong there, it would take some great outside danger to persuade the states to unite willingly.
Franco-Prussian War Bismarck now felt that a war with France would be to the benefit of Prussia. Bismarck used diplomacy to provoke a war. Ems Dispatch was the tool necessary to lure France into a war with Prussia. France declared war on Prussia in –– Bismarck showed a document (1865) listing Napoleons demands for the southern states of France. Within a few months the French were totally defeated. France was not treated as leniently as was Austria. –– Occupied by German forces. –– Lost Alsace and part of Lorraine. –– Had to pay a huge indemnity. Ems Telegram
The Birth of the Second Reich In 1871, at Versailles, the formation of a new German Empire was declared. –– Its new capital was Berlin –– William I was proclaimed German emperor –– Bismarck was named Chancellor of the new German Empire. » Because of his policy of blood and iron he was called the Iron Chancellor. –– A two house legislature was established » Bundesrat (upper house) » Reichstag (lower house) Treaty of Versailles Unification of Germany
France and the Third French Republic The Second French Republic Louis Napoleon became the President of the Second French Republic in December, –– It was evident that he was not committed to the Republic. –– In May, 1849, elections for the Legislative Assembly clearly indicated that the people were not bound to its continuance either. » In this election, the Conservatives and Monarchists scored significant gains, the republicans and radicals lost power in the Assembly. During the three year life of the Second Republic, Louis Napoleon demonstrated his skills as a gifted politician through the manipulation of the various factions in French politics. –– His deployment of troops in Italy to rescue and restore Pope Pius IX was condemned by the republicans, but strongly supported by conservatives. Louis Napoleon
Louis Napoleons Policies Louis Napoleon initiated a policy which minimized the importance of the Legislative Assembly, capitalized: –– on the developing Napoleonic Legend –– courted the support of the army –– the Catholic Church –– and a range of conservative political groups. The Falloux Law returned control of education to the Church. Pierre Falloux
Coup d etat Article 45 of the constitution stipulated that the president was limited to one four-year term. Napoleon had no intention to relinquishing power. With the assistance of a core of dedicated supporters, Louis Napoleon arranged for a coup d etat on the night of December 1 – 2, The Second French Republic fell and soon replaced by the Second French Empire.
The Second French Empire Louis Napoleon drafted a new constitution which resulted in a highly centralized government centered around himself. –– He was to have a ten year term –– Power to declare war –– To lead armed forces –– To conduct foreign policy –– and to initiate and pronounce all laws. The new Legislative Assembly would be under the control of the president. On December 2, 1852, he announced himself as Napoleon III, Emperor of the French. Flag of the 2nd Second Empire- combines the Tricolor rev. flag with Royal symbol of the Bonapartes
Domestic History of the French Empire The domestic history of the Second Empire is divided into two periods; –– » Decade of the Liberal Empire. » During this period, the empire was liberalized through a series of reforms. »– Living conditions improved during this period. » The French economic system was also improved. »– Credit Mobilier and the Credit Focier. » The arts also prospered during this period. »– Victor Hugo, Gustav Flaubert, Renoir and Monet. RenoirMonet. » During this period the legislature gained control of education from the Church and promoted trade unions. Les Dejun
Decline of the 2nd French Empire In a large part, this liberalization was designed to divert criticism from Napoleon IIIs unsuccessful foreign policy. –– The Crimean War benefited France little. –– Italian Unification. –– Establishment of colonies in Africa and Indochina. –– The short lived reign of Maximillian in Mexico resulted in increased criticism of Napoleon III and his authority. The Second French Empire collapsed after the capture of Napoleon III during the Franco-Prussian War ( ). Franco-Prussian War –– Victory gained by the Prussian after the Battle of Sedan. After a regrettable Parisian experience with a communist type of government, the Third French Republic was established. –– It survived until 1940 with the invasion of Nazi Germany. France Surrenders
The 3rd Republic Prussians stay until 1873 –controlled by monarchists who can't find a king –Republic survives until 1940, scandals & all
The Dreyfus Affair Dreyfus (a Jew) convicted of giving info to Germans, flimsy forged evidence (1894) Dreyfus is finally cleared (1906)
Decline of the Eastern European Empires Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Russia
Austria-Hungary: Early Reforms After Austrias defeat to Sardinia in 1859, Franz Josef realized he needed to make some reforms from within his country. He granted a constitution and set up a legislature. The body was dominated by German speaking Austrians and did little for the other nationalities of the empire. The Hungarians were most determined to obtain self-government.
Dual Monarchy Hungarians saw their chance for autonomy when Austria lost its war with Prussia in In 1867, under the leadership of Francis Deak a compromise (Ausgleich) was established and the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary. Each country was separate with its own constitution, but shared the same monarch. (Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary) The Hungarians would have their own assembly, cabinet, and administrative system. The Slavic people of the empire still pursued independence, causing conflict.
A Cultural Revival Though Austria was losing power to Prussia as the leader of the German states, it enjoyed a cultural revival in which its scholars, painters, and writers were renowned throughout the world. –– Scholars » Sigmund Freud (psychology), Carl Menger (economist), and Heinrich Friedjung (historian/politician) Carl Menger –– Painters » Hans MakartHans Makart –– Writers » Stefan Zweig (biographer) and Rilke (philosopher / poet)Rilke Sigmund Freud
Ottoman Empire Balkan Nationalism Like the Hapsburgs, the Ottomans ruled a huge empire. It was home to many ethnic groups. Among them were Serbs, Greeks, Bulgarians, and Romanians. During the 1800s, groups in the Balkans rebelled. Serbia gained their autonomy in Greece gained its independence in These nationalist movements allowed other European powers to try to obtain lands in the Balkans. European powers saw the Ottoman Empire as the sick man of Europe. Austria-Hungary gained control of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Russia fought several wars with the Ottoman Empire over territory in the Balkans because they believed they were the protectors of Orthodoxy. (Russo-Turkish Wars: a series of 12 wars) Because of European countries wanting to dominate the Balkans as well as the ethnic inhabitants wanting national independence, the territory became known as the Powder Keg of Europe.
Russia Three Pillars of Russian Absolutism Orthodoxy: Russian Orthodox Church Autocracy: Their Father the Czar Nationalism: Mother Russia
Reign of Alexander I Came to the throne in Tried to instill some reforms. When Napoleon invaded in 1812, Alexander was forced to give up on many of his reform ideas. When Alexander died a group of military officers tried to take over the government. This was called the Decembrist Revolution.