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Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Chapter 7 Consumer Attitude Formation and Change Consumer Behaviour Canadian Edition Schiffman/Kanuk/Das
7-2 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Opening Vignette The impact of SARS on tourism - real risk was low, but perceived risk was high - led to negative attitude towards Canada, especially TorontoToronto Attitude change through - value-expressive appeals - use of celebrities
7-3 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Attitudes A learned predisposition to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object A positive attitude is generally a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for purchase –Mercedes seen as top of class but intention to purchase was low
7-4 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Characteristics of Attitudes Attitudes have an object Attitudes are learned –Can unlearn Attitudes have behavioural, evaluative and affective components –Predisposition to act –Overall evaluation –Positive or negative feelings »continued
7-5 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Characteristics of Attitudes Attitudes have consistency Attitudes have direction, degree, strength and centrality –Positive or negative –Extent of positive or negative feelings –Strength of feelings –Closeness to core cultural values Attitudes occur within a situation
7-6 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Four Basic Functions of Attitudes The Utilitarian Function –How well it performs The Ego-defensive Function –To protect ones self-concept The Value-expressive Function –To convey ones values and lifestyles The Knowledge Function –A way to gain knowledge
7-7 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. How are attitudes learned? Classical conditioning - through past associations Operant conditioning - through trial and reinforcement Cognitive learning – through information processing –Cognitive dissonance theory –Attribution theory
7-8 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Attitude Models Structural Models of Attitudes –Tri-component Attitude Model –Multi-attribute Attitude Model –Both assume a rational model of human behaviour Other models of attitude formation –Cognitive dissonance model –Attribution theory
7-9 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. The Tri-component Model Cognitive Component –knowledge and perceptions acquired –through direct experience and information from various sources. Affective component –Emotions and feelings about the object Conative or Behavioural Component –Action tendencies toward the object
7-10 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Conation Affect Cognition
7-11 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Multi-attribute Attitude Models Attitude models that examine the composition of consumer attitudes in terms of selected product attributes or beliefs. Examples –Attitude-toward-object Model –Attitude-toward-behaviour Model –Theory-of-Reasoned-Action Model
7-12 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Attitude-toward-object model Attitude is function of evaluation of product-specific beliefs and evaluations –A o = n W i X ib i=1 –Where: A o = Attitude towards the object O Wi = importance of attribute i Xib = belief that brand b has a certain level of attribute I continued
7-13 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Theory of Reasoned Action –A comprehensive theory of the interrelationship among attitudes, intentions, and behaviour
7-14 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.
7-15 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Attitude-Toward-Behaviour Model A consumers attitude toward a specific behaviour is a function of how strongly he or she believes that the action will lead to a specific outcome (either favorable or unfavorable).
7-16 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Cognitive Dissonance Theory Holds that discomfort or dissonance occurs when a consumer holds conflicting thoughts about a belief or an attitude object. Post-purchase Dissonance –Cognitive dissonance that occurs after a consumer has made a purchase commitment
7-17 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Why Might Behaviour Precede Attitude Formation? Cognitive Dissonance Theory Attribution Theory Behave (Purchase) Form Attitude
7-18 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Attribution Theory Examines how people assign casualty to events and form or alter their attitudes as an outcome of assessing their own or other peoples behaviour. Examples –Self-perception Theory –Attribution toward others
7-19 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Self-Perception Theory Attitudes developed by reflecting on their own behaviour Judgments about own behaviour Internal and external attributions »Continued
7-20 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Self-Perception Theory Consumers are likely to accept credit for successful outcomes (internal attribution) and to blame other persons or products for failure (external attribution). Foot-In-The-Door Technique
7-21 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. How We Test Our Attributions Distinctiveness Consistency over time Consistency over modality Consensus
7-22 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Attitudes and Marketing Strategy Appeal to motivational functions of attitudes Associate product with a special group, cause or event Resolve conflicts among attitudes Influence consumer attributions »Continued
7-23 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Attitudes and Marketing Strategy Alter components of the attitude –Change relative evaluation of attributes –Change brand beliefs –Add an attribute –Change overall brand evaluation Change beliefs about competitors brands »Continued
7-24 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Attitudes and Marketing Strategy Change affect first through classical conditioning Change behaviour first through operant conditioning
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Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Chapter 14 Consumer Decision Making I: The Process Consumer Behaviour Canadian Edition Schiffman/Kanuk/Das.
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Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Chapter 3 Motivation and Involvement Consumer Behaviour Canadian Edition Schiffman/Kanuk/Das.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Chapter 1 Introduction to Consumer Behaviour Consumer Behaviour Canadian Edition Schiffman/Kanuk/Das.
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Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Chapter 12 Reference Groups and Family Consumer Behaviour Canadian Edition Schiffman/Kanuk/Das.
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