Are All English Words Really English? As a matter of fact, they are if we regard them in the light of present-day English. If, however, their origins are looked into, the picture may seem a little bit different. A person who does not know English but knows French (Italian, Latin, Spanish) is certain to recognize a great number of familiar-looking words when looking through an English book. It is true that English vocabulary, which is one of the most extensive amongst the world's languages contains an immense number of words of foreign origin. Explanations for this should be found in the history of the language which is closely connected with the history of the nation speaking the language.
The first population of the British Isles – wasn't Indo-European tribe Iberians. These settlers were Celts (Britons and Gael). Celtic languages Gallo-Breton group Gaelic group THE EARLY HISTORY OF THE BRITISH ISLES
LanguagePresent existenceWhere speak British languages 1. BretonExtant Brittany (northern France) 2. CornishExtinctCornwall 3. WelshExtantWales Gaelic languages 1.Erse ExtantHighlands 2. IrishExtantIreland 3. Manx Extant, but there are few native speakers Isle of Man (in the Irish Sea)
'54 BC. - '80 BC. - The rule of the Romans in the British Isles. At this time were borrowed such words as straet and weall. 408 year - the Roman legions left Britain. 410 year - Rome fell to the Germanic tribes of barbarians. After a number of wars between the Germanic tribes and the Romans they came into a peaceful contact. Germans were at a primitive stage of development, in consequence of which they have adopted from the Romans some concepts and their names. Germans have learned to make butter and cheese, learned many fruits and vegetables( cherry (Lat. cerasum), pear (Lat. pirum), plum (Lat. prunus), pea (Lat. pisum), beet (Lat. beta), pepper (Lat. piper)., which became known as the Latin words.
According to the legend, the conquest of Britain the Germans began in middle of the V century. By the end of the VI century, the Germans finally settled throughout the Britan, with the exception of mountain areas: Scotland, Wales and Cornwall. Germanic tribes settled in the following way: Angles - from the border of Scotland to the Thames Valley, the Saxons settled on the Thames Valley and south of it, the Jutes settled in the south-eastern part of the island. Uncertain fate of the Frisians, certainly participated in the invasion of Britain. Most likely, they mixed with the Saxons and Jutes. Germanic conquest of Britain
Germans formed the seven kingdoms of Northumbria (Bernicot and Deira), in the center - Mercia and to the east of it - East of England, to the south - Essex, Sussex and Wessex and the South East - Kent. These seven states subsequently merged into four main kingdoms - Northumbria, Mercia, Wessex and Kent, within which formed four dialects: Northumbrian, Mercian, Wessex and Kentish.
The end of the VI – VII century - Adoption of Christianity throughout Britain. The important fact of the cultural influence of the church was the creation of literature. Latin was the official language of the Christian church, and consequently the spread of Christianity was accompanied by a new period of Latin borrowings: priest (Lat. presbyter), bishop (Lat. episcopus), monk (Lat. monachus), nun (Lat. nonna), candle (Lat. candela). Anglo-Saxon kingdoms
At the end of the VIII century began the raids on England by Scandinavian Vikings. In 876 King Alfred signed the Scandinavians world, which was given to the Scandinavians of the north-east coast of England. However, in 1013 in response to the treachery of King Scandinavians attacked England. Danish dynasty ruled England before the collapse of the Danish kingdom. In 1042 the King of England was a descendant of the Anglo-Saxon dynasty Edward. Alfred the Great Scandinavian conquest
Here are some examples of early Scandinavian borrowings: call, take, cast, die, law, husband, window, ill, loose, low, weak. Certain English words changed their meanings under the influence of Scandinavian words of the same root. Scandinavian borrowing feature was that they kept consonants / k /, / g / and the group / sk /, while in the English words, in certain circumstances, they become sizzling. English has also been borrowed the pronoun they.
In 1065 Edward died without an heir. In 1066 Duke William of Normandy, surnamed the Conqueror became King of England. After the Norman Conquest the Anglo-Saxon part of the military elite were killed in battle or were executed, partly fled to France, the rest were forced to submit to the crown. Its population was mixed: it included both English and Norman craftsmen. Here is a very brief list of examples of Norman French borrowings. Administrative words: state, government, parliament, council, power. Legal terms: court, judge, justice, crime, prison. Military terms: army, war, soldier, officer, battle, enemy. Educational terms: pupil, lesson, library, science, pen, pencil. William the Conqueror English after the Norman Conquest
THE COEXISTENCE OF THREE LANGUAGES IN ENGLAND The native population continued to speak English. The dialects of Middle English period is called on account of their geographical position. Northumbria - North (Northern), Mercian - central (Midland); Wessex - south or south- west (Southern, South-Western); Kentish retained its name as Kent continued to exist on the site of the former kingdom, but the dialect is sometimes called the southeast (South-Eastern). Central dialect was divided into east-central and west- central (East Midland, West Midland). East Central subsequently became the leader.
However, English was not the only language spoken and written after the Norman conquest. The Normans brought the French language more precisely, its northern dialect - Norman. Over the next hundred years after the conquest of England formed the so-called Anglo-Norman dialect. Anglo- Norman existed in England before the end of the XIV century, after which he disappeared. Finally, a third language was Latin, which in England, as in the rest of Western Europe, was the language of ecclesiastical and language of science.
Influx carriers Norman dialect and Anglo-Norman education should be reflected at the lexical structure of English. English learned a lot of Latin words. It combat prepositions and conjunctions (e.g, except, because). Especially obvious borrowings reflect Norman influence in those areas of life that were associated with the government: names directly related to the life of the royal court - courtier, servant, prince. The middle of the XIII-the end of the XIV century English finally became the official language. The special position of the government becomes a dialect of the administrative center - London. It incorporates the features of the various dialects. Question with church was settled by King Henry VIII: quarrel with Pope Clement VII, he began to plant Protestantism. All church texts were translated into English, service was conducted in English. In 1531 Sir Thomas Eliot wrote the first attempt to create a scholarly work in English – The Governour. Latin was defeated by borrowing terms from Latin.
At the Restoration in English was borrowed a small amount of French words. Words borrowed from the Italian, basically, related to the visual arts, music, theater: andante, libretto, opera. For Spanish borrowings are: armada, canyon, cigar. From the Dutch entered the English words related to seafaring and painting: buoy, dock, reef. In English, there are words borrowed from the languages of North American Indians: canoe, wigwam, etc. By the end of the XVI century the addition of English as the national language is complete. Addition of national language
My practical work is based on the ballad, called «Robin Hood and the Bishop»
«Robin Hood and the Bishop» was written by English folk in XIV century. Robin Hood was a good thief, who acted with his gang in Sherwood Forest. According to the legend, he robbed the rich and gave all that he had stolen to the poor. The purpose of my work is to prove that a lot of English words are borrowed from different languages.
WORD ORIGIN 1. WORDS OF A GERMAN ORIGIN Comefrom Proto-Germanic Howfrom West Germanic Asfrom Middle High German Thisfrom North Sea Germanic 2. WORDS OF A FRENCH ORIGIN Storyfrom Old French Archerfrom Anglo-French Spyfrom Old Frankish Bravefrom Middle French 3. WORDS OF A DUTCH ORIGIN Unfoldfrom Middle Dutch
4. WORDS OF A LATIN ORIGIN Bishopfrom Late Latin Primefrom Latin Boundfrom Anglo-Latin Saturdayfrom Latin 5. WORDS OF A SCANDINAVIAN ORIGIN Takefrom Scandinavian Callfrom Old Norse Theyfrom Old Norse Bothfrom Old Norse 6. WORDS OF MORE THAN ONE ORIGINS Gentleman from Old French + Proto-Germanic Thefrom Sanskrit, Avestan, Greek, Gaelic Out-lowfrom Germanic + Old Norse A/anfrom European languages
In conclusion I would like to say that I investigated the historical development of the English language, analysed all historical periods and proved that a lot of English words are not of the English origin. As an example I took a ballad named Robin Hood and the Bishop. It was written by English folk. On the basis of this ballad I proved that a lot of English words are borrowed from other languages. This work helped me to learn more about the English language and to improve my English skills.