a.Western b.Science fiction c.Thriller d.Comedy e.Horror f.Cartoon g.Musical 1.A film with lots of music and dance. 2.A film in which unnatural and frightening things happen, such as dead people coming to life, people turning into animals, etc. 3. An action-packed film about cowboys, horses and gunfights. 4. A film about space travel or life in an imaginary future. 5. A film made by photographing a set of drawings. 6. A suspense film full of violence and crime. 7. An amusing film with a happy ending.
One of the earliest motion-picture machines was Kinetoscope invented by Thomas A. Edison and W. Dickson. It was a cabinet showing unenlarged black-and-white films running about 90 seconds. An individual watched through a peephole as the film moved on spools. Kinetoscope parlours opened in several cities. However, they were soon replaced by projection machines that threw greatly enlarged pictures on a screen. These new machines allowed many people to watch one film at the same time.
In the mid-1910-s the first new theatres opened in the USA and Europe. They were called dream palaces because of the fantastic luxury of their interiors.
The Western was the only type of early film which was unique to the cinema. People knew comedies, romances, police stories and melodramas from the theatre. But the Western was new, and especially popular with children.
With special effects films become more exciting, and sometimes more frightening. The first special effect was created in 1895 By Alfred Clark in The Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots. It was a simple trick: the Camera was stopped and the actress Replaces with a doll.
In 1911, the first studio was opened in Hollywood, Los Angeles. It became the Film-making capital of the world. By the 1920s, 80 percent of world films were Produced in Hollywood.
The film stars moved to areas like Beverly Hills and Malibu. visitors can go to the famous Chinese Theater and see the footprints and autographs of famous film stars. They can go down the Walk of Fame and see the golden stars on the pavement…
By 1916, Charlie Chaplin had what was probably the best-known face in the world. The public transformed him from a star into a mythic figure. cartoons, poems and comic strips under the Chaplin name appeared in newspapers. Chaplin dolls, toys and boots were manufactured. This little man made the whole world laugh with his films. Like many silent film stars, he didnt succeed in talkies.
Mary Pickford, Americas Sweetheart, was one of the early stars of silent cinema. She was also the first female millionaire. I cant afford to work for only 10,000 dollars a week, she used to say. Thousands of young girls went to Hollywood hoping to become rich and famous like her.
Marilyn Monroe was a perfect example of a Hollywood studio star. Her great beauty made her a world-famous sex symbol. But in spite of her success in films, Monroe had a tragic life. She died at the age of 36 from an overdose of sleeping pills. Since her death she has become one of the most written-about film stars in history.
Vivien Leigh (Scarlett OHara) and Clark Gable (Rhett Butler) in Gone with the Wind.
Greta Garbo was one of the few silent film stars who succeeded in talkies. The two words that appeared on billboards – GARBO TALKS – sold more tickets than any other advertisement in the history of the cinema.