H I S T O R Y 1770 – captain James Cook discovered Australia. He landed south of present day Sydney and claimed this part of land for the King of England – captain James Cook discovered Australia. He landed south of present day Sydney and claimed this part of land for the King of England – captain Arthur Phillip commanded eleven ships to Australia. About 750 of the 1000 people on the ships were convicts. They were the first British settlers – captain Arthur Phillip commanded eleven ships to Australia. About 750 of the 1000 people on the ships were convicts. They were the first British settlers. At that time Australia was inhabited by the Aborigines. There were about 300,000 Aborigines living on the continent. At that time Australia was inhabited by the Aborigines. There were about 300,000 Aborigines living on the continent – Great Britain claimed all of Australia – Great Britain claimed all of Australia – Australia became a nation within the British Empire under Queen Victorias rule. It was called the Commonwealth of Australia – Australia became a nation within the British Empire under Queen Victorias rule. It was called the Commonwealth of Australia – Australia gained independence from Great Britain – Australia gained independence from Great Britain.
This monument in Botany Bay National Park, on Australias southeastern coast, commemorates the sites discovery by British explorer Captain James Cook in Cook claimed possession of the territory for the United Kingdom, leading to the arrival of the first European settlers on the Australian continent in Monument at Botany Bay Captain James Cook, a British explorer, was killed during a fight with islanders in Hawaii.
Located in Sydney Cove along the Port Jackson waterfront of Sydney, Australia, Circular Quay was the final point of anchorage of the First Fleet, which brought the first European settlers to Australia in Long the shipping center of Sydney, Circular Quay is now the main dock for ferries traversing Port Jackson. Circular Quay, Sydney Captain Arthur Phillip
Australia is situated in the southern hemisphere south of Asia, between the Pacific and the Indian Oceans. It is surrounded by three countries, Indonesia and New Guinea to the north and New Zealand to the south-east. Australia is a continent, a country and an island all at the same time. It is the sixth largest country and the smallest continent in the world. Its territory is 7.7million square kilometres.
The continent is surrounded by great amount of beautiful islands, the largest of which is Tasmania. It is an island – state.
C L I M A T E The climate of Australia is varied, from tropical in the north to temperate in the south – east. Australia is situated in southern hemisphere thats why it has summer when we have winter. It is the worlds driest continent. The wettest months are between April and June. The sun shines most days of the year. Water temperature in Sydney: С in summer and +18 С in winter.
G R E A T B A R R I E R R E E F Australia has the largest coral reef in the world. It is called the Great Barrier Reef. It is situated on the north – east of Australia, off the coast of Queensland different kinds of fish live there. Here there is Great Barrier Marine Park.
Kata Tjuta. These natural formations rise from the desert plains. This is Uluru National Park. This is Uluru National Park. Aborigines call it place of many heads
The Murray River, which is 2589 km (1609 mi) long, runs through southeastern Australia. It is the countrys principal river. Murray River
Lake Eyre is a vast salt lake in the arid interior of South Australia. Although many intermittent rivers flow into the lake, the water often evaporates, reducing the lake to a dry salt pan for much of the year. Lake Eyre, South Australia
G O V E R N M E N T The Commonwealth of Australia is a federal parliamentary state, a member of British Commonwealth. Formally the chief of the state is the British Queen Elizabeth II represented by the Governor General. The Head of the Government is the Prime Minister. Australia has six states and two territories: South Australia, Western Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, Northern Territory and Australian Capital Territory. Each state and territory has a capital city.
T H E C A P I T A L The capital of Australia is Canberra. It is located in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) in the southeast corner of New South Wales. It is not very large with the population of about 300,000. It was specially designed and built as a capital. The new Parliament House was opened in Canberra is a natural capital without industry so the air here is fresh and crisp. Australias national sights and museums are located in Canberra. The National Gallery, the National Science and Technology Centre and so on. Parliament House in Canberra
L A R G E C I T I E S Australia is a very urban country. About 70% of the population live in 10 largest cities. The oldest and largest is Sydney, the capital of New South Wales. It is leading industrial city. Nearly a quarter of all Australians live here. It hosted 2000 Olympics. Sydney is surrounded by national parks has a large Taronga zoo, impressive galleries, museums. Sydney Opera House2000 Summer Olympic Games
Sydney Monorail Royal National Park University of Sydney
Founded in 1835 by pioneers from Tasmania, Melbourne is Australia's second largest city and the capital of the state of Victoria. Its multicultural population of nearly 3 million comes from succeeding waves of immigrants. It is a lively, prosperous city with good public transportation, several major universities, and a growing financial and business district. Australia's Second Largest City
P O P U L A T I O N Australia has a population of about 18 million people. 70 per cent of the population live in 10 largest cities. Most of the population is in the south – eastern corner of the country and only 15 per cent live in rural areas. Australia is a multicultural society. People from about 200 nations live there. But most are of British origin. The Aborigines, the Australian natives, represent about 1.5 per cent of the population.
Music, dance, and body painting are important parts of Aboriginal culture in Australia. Aboriginal people have lived in Australia for thousands of years. Aboriginal Dancers
AUSTRALIAN ENGLISH Australias official language is English. Australian English does not differ significantly from other forms of English. It reflects British traditions but is influenced by American English. Young people take fashionable colloquialisms from America. Many words are borrowed from Aboriginal languages, particularly in describing the flora and fauna (kangaroo, koala, wombat …)
I N D U S T R Y A G R I C U L T U R E Australia is highly developed country. It is very rich in minerals. Australian industries are: mining, industrial and transport equipment, food, chemicals, steel. It exports metals, minerals, coal. Australian agriculture is also highly developed. The country is world largest exporter of beef and wool, second largest for mutton, among top wheat exporters. All kinds of transport are used: sea lines, paved highways( 243,750 km), air lines (440 airports).
N A T U R E Australian continent has very rich flora and fauna: nearly half a million species of plants and animals – one of the greatest varieties of any country in the world. They have more than 20,000 species of plants, and 85 % of these are found only in Australia.
P E O P L E A N D N A T U R E P E O P L E A N D N A T U R E
AUSTRALIAN ANIMAL WORLD Australian animal world is unique: more than 50 types of kangaroos, enormous amount of parrots and other birds, about 200 species of frogs, 282 mammal species, 82 % do not occur anywhere else. Australian animal world is unique: more than 50 types of kangaroos, enormous amount of parrots and other birds, about 200 species of frogs, 282 mammal species, 82 % do not occur anywhere else. There is a great variety of animal life in Australias waters. There are more than 4000 species of fish in the seas around Australia. There is a great variety of animal life in Australias waters. There are more than 4000 species of fish in the seas around Australia. Tree KangarooKoala Emu
A u s t r a l i a n a n i m a l s E c h i d n a D i n g o Wombat Platypus Numbat
A u s t r a l i a n a n i m a l s A u s t r a l i a n a n i m a l s V a l l a b y C o c k a t o o Tasmanian Devil K a n g a r o o Rainbow Lorikeet Tuatara
H O L I D A Y S Most Australians celebrate as many holidays as any other people in the world: Christmas, New Year… But the greatest holiday in the country is Australias national day, Australia Day, on 26 January, which commemorates the arrival of the First Fleet in It is the largest one-day event. Ferries decorated with flags and banners under Sydney Harbour Bridge are quite a sight to see.
RUSSIANS IN AUSTRALIA Nikolai Miklouho-Maclay a Russian scientist and traveller came to Sydney in 1878 and lived there for several years. He married an Australian woman and had two sons. Their descendants still live in Sydney. Russian famous ballet dancer Anna Pavlova and famous singer Fedor Shalapin visited Australia in Such prominent writers as Anton Chekhov, Leo Tolstoy, Konstantin Balmont wrote about this country. Nowadays there are thousands of Russians in Australia. Among them is Kostya Tzu, a famous boxer.
CHECK YOURSELF 1. When was Australia discovered? By whom? 2. Where is it located? 3. What is the official name of the country? The official language? 4. What is its capital? What other large cities do you know? 5. What do you know about population of Australia? 6. Australia is a highly developed country, isnt it? 7. Why do you think Australians flora and fauna is so unique? 8. What animals are on Australian coat of arms?