As we go through the lecture please remember to make notes about the Key Concepts The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions New religions grow out of old Universal truths New gender roles Influence on culture 2.2. The Development of States and Empires New administrative systems made to control large empires Centralized government Bureaucracy Diplomacy Patriarchy remained 2.3. Emergence of Transregional Networks of Communication and Exchange Land and water trade routes (Silk Road, trans- Sahara, Indian Ocean, and Mediterranean Sea) New technologies made trade easier Trade - goods, ideas, and diseases Organization and Reorganization of Human Societies, c. 600 B.C.E. to c. 600 C.E.
Think back to Unit one. We studied China during the Ancient Period. How many of these questions can you answer? 1.What was the river system that the first Chinese Dynasties were built upon? 2.Arrange these Chinese Dynasties in the chronological order in which they appeared: Shang, Xia, Zhou 3.True/False: The Shang Dynasty did not promulgate law codes such as the Mesopotamians, but ruled by decree. 4.True/False: The Zhou Dynasty created the Mandate of Heaven because god had chosen them to rule China. Yellow River Xia, Shang, Zhou True False, they popularized the idea to justify why they should be allowed to govern.
Ancient China was ruled by the Xia, Shang, and Zhou Dynasties for about 2,000 years. Some of the key points of these Dynasties were: Xia BCE Shang BCE Zhou BCE no organized religion – ancestor worship bronze tools from the west possibly 1,000 cities evidence of long-distance trade patriarchy social hierarchy development of writing from pictograms on bones
The last two hundred years of the Zhou Dynasty were chaotic. The Zhou lost control of China and different families competed for power. This was the Warring States Period. Xia BCE Shang BCE Zhou BCE The political turmoil of this period forced people to reflect on the nature of society and peoples roles within a society.
Xia BCE Shang BCE Zhou BCE The last two hundred years of the Zhou Dynasty were chaotic. The Zhou lost control of China and different families competed for power. This was the Warring States Period. Three different schools of thought developed to identify principles that would restore political and social order.
Xia BCE Shang BCE Zhou BCE Three Philosophies Confucianism Moral political service Strict social hierarchy Daoism Withdrawal into individual goodness Legalism Clear laws Swift punishment to transgressors All tried to explain how to create a well-ordered society Three different schools of thought developed to identify principles that would restore political and social order.
Confucius Kong Fuzi ( BCE) – Master Philosopher Kong Aristocratic roots Unwilling to compromise principle Decade of unemployment, wandering Returned home a failure, died soon thereafter Teachings: Analects
Confucian Ideas Ethics and politics – Avoided religion, metaphysics Junzi: superior individuals – Role in government service Emphasis on Zhou Dynasty texts – later formed core texts of Chinese education
Confucian Values Ren – kindness, benevolence Li – Propriety Xiao – Filial piety Traits lead to development of junzi – Ideal leaders Do we really need to know this?
Confucian Scholars Mencius ( BCE) Xunzi ( BCE) Principal Confucian scholar Optimist, belief in power of ren Not influential during lifetime – Considered prime exponent of Confucian thought since 10 th century Career as government administrator Belief in fundamental selfishness of humanity – Compare with Mencius Emphasis on li, rigid propriety discipline
Daoism Critics of Confucianism – Passivism, rejection of active attempts to change the course of events Founder: Laozi, 6 th c. BCE The Daodejing (Classic of Way and of Virtue) Zhuangzi (named for author, BCE)
The Dao The Way (of nature, of the cosmos) – Water: soft and yielding, but capable of eroding rock – Cavity of pots, wheels: nonexistent, but essential Attempt to control universe results in chaos Restore order by disengagement No advanced education No ambition Simple living in harmony with nature Cultivate self-knowledge Far out, man.
Political Implications of Daoism Confucianism as public doctrine Daoism as private pursuit Ironic combination allowed intellectuals to pursue both
Legalism Emphasis on development of the state – Ruthless, end justifies the means Role of Law – Strict punishment for violators – Principle of collective responsibility Shang Yang ( BCE), The Book of the Lord Shang Han Feizi ( BCE) – Forced to commit suicide by political enemies
Legalist Doctrine Two strengths of the state – Agriculture – Military Emphasized development of peasant, soldier classes Distrust of pure intellectual, cultural pursuits Historically, often imitated but rarely praised
1.A good society must start with good people. 2.Government cant just rely on good will, it need a practical system governed by law. 3.In the system all people are fundamentally equal, except the ruler. 4.When people try to do too much, they will upset the natural order of things. 5.People need to be inspired, not forced to be good. 6.Human beings are only a small part of the total reality. Confucius Lao Tzu Shang Yang Lets see how well you were paying attention. Please match the statements with who most likely would have uttered them. Confucius Shang Yang Lao Tzu Confucius
The story of us all – 23 minutes in (9 minutes long)
Unification of China Qin dynasty develops, 4 th -3 rd centuries BCE Generous land grants under Shang Yang – Private farmers decrease power of large landholders – Increasing centralization of power Improved military technology
The First Emperor Qin Shihuangdi (r BCE) founds new dynasty as First Emperor Dynasty ends in 207, but sets dramatic precedent Basis of rule: centralized bureaucracy Massive public works begun – Incl. precursor to Great Wall
The Han Dynasty Civil disorder brings down Qin dynasty 207 BCE Liu Bang forms new dynasty: the Han (206 BCE-220 CE) – Former Han (206 BCE-9 CE) – Interruption 9-23 CE – Later Han ( CE)
Early Han Policies Relaxed Qin tyranny without returning to Zhou anarchy Created large landholdings But maintained control over administrative regions After failed rebellion, took more central control
Han Centralization The Martial Emperor: Han Wudi ( BCE) Increased taxes to fund more public works But huge demand for government officials, decline since Qin persecution
Confucian Educational System Han Wudi establishes an Imperial University in 124 BCE Not a lover of scholarship, but demanded educated class for bureaucracy Adopted Confucianism as official course of study 3000 students by end of Former Han, 30,000 by end of Later Han
Han Imperial Expansion Invasions of Vietnam, Korea Constant attacks from Xiongnu – Nomads from Central Asia – Horsemen – Brutal: Maodun ( BCE), had soldiers murder his wife, father Han Wudi briefly dominates Xiongnu
East Asia and central Asia at the time of Han Wudi, Ca. 87 B.C.E.
Patriarchal Social Order Classic of Filial Piety – Subordination to elder males Admonitions for Women – Female virtues: Humility, obedience, subservience, loyalty
Iron Metallurgy Expansion of iron manufacture – Iron tips on tools abandoned as tools entirely made from iron Increased food production Superior weaponry
Other technological Developments Cultivation of silkworms – Breeding – Diet control Other silk-producing lands relied on wild worms Development of paper – Bamboo, fabric abandoned in favor of wood and textile-based paper
Population Growth in the Han Dynasty General prosperity Increased agricultural productivity Taxes small part of overall income Produce occasionally spoiling in state granaries
Economic and Social Difficulties Expenses of military expeditions, esp. vs. Xiongnu Taxes increasing Arbitrary property confiscations rise Increasing gap between rich and poor – Slavery, tenant farming increase – Banditry, rebellion
Reign of Wang Mang (9-23 CE) Wang Mang regent for 2-year old Emperor, 6 CE Takes power himself 9 CE Introduces massive reforms – The socialist emperor – Land redistribution, but poorly handled Social chaos ends in his assassination 23 CE
Later Han Dynasty Han Dynasty emperors manage, with difficulty, to reassert control Yellow Turban uprising challenges land distribution problems Internal court intrigue Weakened Han Dynasty collapses by 220 CE