Classical Persian Civilizations The Cyrus Cylinder recounts in ancient cuneiform the Persian king Cyrus the Greats conquest of Babylon in 539 B.C.,a move. - презентация
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Classical Persian Civilizations The Cyrus Cylinder recounts in ancient cuneiform the Persian king Cyrus the Greats conquest of Babylon in 539 B.C.,a move that created one of the largest and most diverse kingdoms at the time. It was also one of the most enlightened, granting religious freedom for its people in allowing Jews to return to their homeland in the process.
As we go through the lecture please remember to make notes about the Key Concepts The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions New religions grow out of old Universal truths New gender roles Influence on culture 2.2. The Development of States and Empires New administrative systems made to control large empires Centralized government Bureaucracy Diplomacy Patriarchy remained 2.3. Emergence of Transregional Networks of Communication and Exchange Land and water trade routes (Silk Road, trans- Sahara, Indian Ocean, and Mediterranean Sea) New technologies made trade easier Trade - goods, ideas, and diseases Organization and Reorganization of Human Societies, c. 600 B.C.E. to c. 600 C.E.
Persian Empires Contemporary Iran Four major dynasties Achaemenids ( BCE) Seleucids ( BCE) Parthians (247 BCE-224 CE) Sasanids ( CE) Persian Cyrus the Great Satraps tolerance Greek kept Persian administration Nomads from central Asia Heavily armed horse warriors Persian claimed return to Achaemenids
Achaemenid Empire ( BCE) Migration of Medes and Persians from central Asia, before 1000 BCE – Indo-Europeans Capitalized on weakening Assyrian and Babylonian empires Cyrus (r BCE) founder of dynasty – Cyrus the Shepherd Peak under Darius (r BCE) – Ruled Indus to the Aegean – Capital Persepolis
Persian Administration: The Satrapies 23 Administrative divisions Satraps Persian, but staff principally local System of spies, surprise audits – Minimized possibilities of local rebellion Standardized currency for taxation purposes Massive road building, courier service
Technologies Qanat: System of underground canals – Avoided excessive loss to evaporation Extensive road-building – Persian Royal Road 1,600 miles, some of it paved – Courier service What are these things?
Decline of the Achaemenid Empire Policy of toleration under Cyrus, Darius – Rebuilding of Temple in Jerusalem Xerxes ( BCE) attempts to impose Persian stamp on satrapies Increasing public discontent
Rebellious Greeks in Ionia Peninsular Greeks join in Persians defeated at Marathon (490 BCE), retreated War and hostility continue for over a hundred years Alexander the Great conquers the Achaemenid Empire ( BCE)
Parthian Empire Seminomadic Parthians drive Seleucus out of Iran Federated governmental structure Especially strong cavalry Weakened by ongoing wars with Romans Fell to internal rebellion
Sasanid Empire ( CE) Claimed descent from Achaemenids Continual conflicts with Rome, Byzantium in the west, Kush in the east Overwhelmed by Arab conquest in 651 Persian administration and culture absorbed into local Islamic culture
The Parthian and Sasanid empires, 247 B.C.E.-651 C.E
Lets see how well you were listening. Can you name the different Persian Dynasties? What did they have in common? Dynasties : Achaemenid Seluecid Parthian Sasanid Common Features: Large, multi-cultural empire Tolerance Administration (Satraps) Technologies Trade Roads Zoroastrianism
Persian Society Early steppe traditions – Warriors, priests, peasants – Family/clan kinship very important Creation of bureaucrat class with Empire – Tax collectors – Record keepers – translators
Slave Class Prisoners of war, conquered populations Debtors Children, spouses also sold into slavery Principally domestic servitude – Some agricultural labor, public works
To govern their large empire, the Persians created administrative districts known as ______. To run these they need a professional bureaucracy. Explain what this bureaucracy needed, and how its establishment changed Persian society. Heres a hint: How did they go from this to this?
Persian Economy Several areas exceptionally fertile Long-distance trade benefits from Persian road-building Goods from India especially valued
Early Aryan influences on Persian religious traditions Zarathustra (late 7 th -early 6 th c. BCE) Prophet of Ahura Mazda, against Angra Mainu Idea of salvation and heaven/hell Priests of Zarathustra known as Magi Oral teachings until Sasanid period composed Gathas
Fortunes of Zoroastrianism Under Alexander: Massacre of Magi, burning Zoroastrian temples Weak Parthian support Major revival under Sasanids, persecution of non-Zoroastrians Discrimination under Islam
Other Religious Groups in the Persian Empire Major Mesopotamian communities of Jews Composition of the Talmud, c. 500 CE – constitution of Judaism Buddhism, Christianity and Manichaeism also survived