Conditionals There are 4 main types of if sentences in English, often called conditional sentences. These sentences are in two halves (clauses): the if part (if clause) the other part where you can use words such as can, will, may, might, could and would (main clause)
ZERO CONDITIONAL is a structure used for talking about general truths -- things which always happen under certain conditions (note that most zero conditional sentences will mean the same thing if "when" is used instead of "if"). The zero conditional is used to talk about things which are always true -- scientific facts, general truths, and so on. if clause If + Present Simple main clause Present Simple If you heat the water to 100 degrees, it boils.
1st CONDITIONAL is a structure used for talking about possibilities in the present or in the future. The first conditional is used to talk about things which are possible in the present or the future -- things which may happen. if clause If + Present Simple main clause Future Simple, can, may If you study hard,you will pass the test.
2nd CONDITIONAL is a structure used for talking about unreal situations in the present or in the future. The second conditional is used to talk about things which are unreal (not true or not possible) in the present or the future -- things which don't or won't happen. if clause If + Past Simple main clause would, could, might If I had a million dollars,I would buy a big house.
3rd CONDITIONAL is a structure used for talking about unreal situations in the past. The third conditional is used to talk about things which DID NOT HAPPEN in the past. If your native language does not have a similar construction, you may find this a little strange, but it can be very useful. It is often used to express criticism or regret. if clause If + Past Perfect main clause would/could/might have + Past Participle If I had studied harder,I would have passed the exam.
WISH / IF ONLY CLAUSES Wish and if only can be used with would and past tenses. These structures express regrets, and wishes for unlikely or impossible things. If only is more emphatic. (Traducción: Ójala, Desearía) 1. Past tenses are used to talk about the present. I wish I was better lookingI wish I spoke French Don t you wish you could fly?If only I knew more people! Were can be used instead of was, especially in a formal style. He wishes he were better looking. 2. We use a past perfect tense to express regrets about the past I wish you hadn t said that. Now she wishes she had gone to university. If only she hadn t told the police, everything would be all right. 3. We use would or could to talk about future things which arent so much probable. I wish / If only I could go to the party. 2. to talk about future things that we would like people (not) to do. The subject of wish and the main verb is different. So here we only use would. This often expresses dissatisfaction or annoyance: It can sound critical. I wish you would go home. If only the postman would come! We can use this structure to talk about things as well as people. I wish this damned car would start. If only it would stop raining!
Sample rephrasing First Conditional: - Be careful – someones going to see you! - If you are careful, nobody will see you! - If + Subject + present simple, subject + future will (aff or neg) Second Conditional: -Kathy wants to go to the movies but doesn't have any money -If Kathy had some money, she would go to the movies. -If + Subject + past simple (neg or aff), subject + would /could/might + infinitive + complements Third Conditional: -Tom was not going to come to dinner the next day because you insulted him. -If Tom hadnt insulted him, he would have come to dinner. - If + Subject + past perfect (neg or aff), subject + would/ could/might + have + pp + C Wish / If only Im sorry, but I cant help you now. I wish I could help you. I would have gone to the concert, but I didnt have a ticket. I wish I had had a ticket. / I had bought a ticket
Make Zero Conditional sentences, use cues. 1.Jane / eat / too much chocolate / she /get / sick ________________________________________________ 2.You / not / eat / you / die ________________________________________________ 3.You / heat / ice / it / melts _______________________________________________ Make 1st Conditional sentences, put the verbs in brackets in correct form 1.If you _________________ (not study), you _____________ (fail) the test. 2. I _____________ (lend) you my umbrella if you _____________ (need) it. 3.If I ________________ (be late), I _______________ (call) you.
Write 2nd Conditional sentences, put the verbs in brackets in correct form. 1.If you _______________ (leave) your job, you ________________ (travel) around the world. 2.If you _____________ (be) nicer to him, he ____________________(lend) you the money 3.It _________________(be) nice if the rain ____________________(stop)! Write 3rd Conditional sentences, put the verbs in brackets in correct order. 1.He crashed his car, because he fell asleep while driving. If he __________________(fall) asleep while driving, he _____________________(crash) his car. 2.I lost my job because I was late for work. I ____________________ (loose) my job if I ___________________ (be)late for work. 3.We couldn't go to the concert, because we didn't have enough money. If we _________________ (have)enough money, we ____________________ (go)to the concert.
Key for teachers Make Zero Conditional sentences, use cues 1.If Jane eats too much chocolate, she gets sick 2.If you dont eat, you die. 3.If you heat ice, it melts. Make 1st Conditional sentences 1.If you __dont study___ (not study), you ___will fail__ (fail) the test. 2.I __will lend__ (lend) you my umbrella if you ___need____ (need) it. 3.If I ___am late___ (be late), I _will call ___ (call) you. Write 2nd Conditional sentences 1.If you __left__ (leave)your job, you __could travel__ (travel)around the world. 2.If you __ were__ (be) nicer to him, he ___might lend____ (lend) you the money 3.It ___ would be ___(be) nice if the rain ___stopped___(stop)! Write 3rd Conditional sentences. 1.He crashed his car, because he fell asleep while driving. If he __hadnt fallen__(fall) asleep while driving, he __wouldnt have crashed__(crash) his car. 2.I lost my job because I was late for work. I _wouldnthave lost____ (loose) my job if I __hadnt been___ (be)late for work. 3.We couldn't go to the concert, because we didn't have enough money. If we __had had_____ (have)enough money, we __could have gone_____ (go)to the concert.