Relative Clauses Relative clauses give information about who or what you are talking about. We use relative pronouns like who, which and that to start a relative clause. Who >>> refers to people Which >>> refers to things That >>> refers to people and things: e.g. 1. Neal is the guy who / that sits near me. 2. Neal had a company which / that planned events.
Relative Clauses are formed by joining 2 sentences: -Peter is the student. -He comes from Glasgow. >>> Peter is the student WHO/THAT comes from Glasgow. -The books are on the table. -They are mine. >>> The books WHICH/THAT are on the table are mine. -My best friend has a painting. -She bought it from a famous artist. >>> My friend has a painting (WHICH/THAT) she bought from a famous artist. -Charlie is someone. -I can trust Charlie. >>> Charlie is someone (WHO/THAT) I can trust.
Remember: ** When we join 2 sentences with a Relative Pronoun, we have to omit the noun/ pronoun/ possessive that the Relative replaces (In the previous sentences: He/ They/ it/ Charlie) ** Relative Clauses go RIGHT AFTER the Noun they modify.
Defining Relative Clauses There are two types of relative clauses: defining and non-defining. (We are going to focus on the defining relative clauses.) Defining/ Restrictive Relative Clauses They define, give us essential information about a general term or expression. Defining Relative Clauses are not separated from the main clauses by commas: - I talked to the man who/that gave you the news. - I read the letter which/that came this morning.
OMISSION OF WHO, WHICH AND THAT: WHO, WHICH and THAT can be the Subject of the Relative Clause: - Ive talked to the man WHO sold me his car. ( Who replaces The man and is the Subject of the Clause sold me his car) - The dog WHICH barks every night is my neighbours. ( Which is the Subject of the clause barks every night)
Relative pronouns can also be the Object of the clause. - I loved the film (WHICH/ THAT) we saw last night. >>> I loved the film we saw last night. - The man ( WHO/THAT) you mentioned is a writer. >>> The man you mentioned is a writer. When The Relative pronoun is the Object of the verb in the clause (i.e., there is a subjet and a verb after the pronoun ), it can be (and it is usually) omitted in Defining Relative Clauses.
Exercises I. Fill in with the correct relative pronoun. (some sentences dont need a relative) 1/ This is the house ____ my parents want to buy. 2/ Who was the girl _____ I saw you talking to? 3/ What do you call the people ____ live in Scotland? 4/ The postcard ______ I send you was written on the summit of Ben Nevis. 5/ The school ______ I study in is called MG. 6/ This is the letter ______ came three days after I got back. 7/ I guess it was his little brother ______ introduced us.
II. Join the following pairs of sentences using the suitable relative pronoun. 1/ I know the man. He gave you the money. Answer: I know the man who/that gave you the money. 2/ I met her in a store. Her family owns a store. Answer: I met her in a store which/that/ __her family owns. 3/ The woman can help us. She works with my mother. Answer: The woman who/that works with my mother can help us. 4/ This is the little boy. I helped him when he was lost on the beach. Answer: This is the little boy who/that/__ I helped when he was lost on the beach.