Introduction A. A. Milne Christopher Robins birth Do you know Winnie? Ashdown Forest Characters Describe The world of the Wood The inhabitants of the Wood Dangers in the Wood Translations What was it like to be the small boy about whom Milne was written Christopher Milne The famous toys How toys became to life The attitude to Pooh Pooh at studio Walta Disney Russian Pooh cartoons Cartoons about nowadays Pooh Teddy Bears Shepard Ernest Howard Zakhoder Boris Vladimirovich Literature About me Full text
Long ago Winnie- the- pooh has come in the selected circle of the most favorite literary heroes and already many years leads a quite independent existence, takes part in the cartoon serials, theatrical and puppet shows and advertisements advertising; it is awarded with a monument at the London Zoo. He is made small so everyone, like Christopher Robin, not being afraid, could approach to him and continue that game that is described in Alan Milnes books. We know much about Winnie, but not all. For a long time I would like to get acquainted with well-known teddy bear cub called Winnie, and with his friends. Daddy of Christopher Robin is an English writer A. A. Milne lived somewhere nearby from the Wonderful wood, where there is an adventure of all this nice company, and in the books he has told so much interesting about them, that I awfully wanted to get acquainted with Winnie and his friends.A. A. Milne
Milne was born in not notable and rather poor, but quite provided family. There were three sons of whom Alan was the third. He tried his hand at writing at the age of nine, adapting a three penny novel into a play with the help of his brother. Milne visited one more school. At Westminster Alan was good at games and mathematics, and he decided to go up to Cambridge University where was the editor of already students magazine. When Milne has received the diploma, father began to discuss with him the further plans, reflecting aloud about, whether Alan suits a serious service field. «I want to be the writer», the young man interrupted his reasonings.
However he has decided to risk. Milne returned to London to try to become a professional writer at the age of twenty-one. His first accepted piece was a burlesque of Sherlock Holmes. Then, entering unexpectedly, Punch invited him to become Assistant Editor at the age of 24.He remained at Punch until the outbreak of war in 1914.After he returned, he upset his wife, Dorophy de Selincourt, whom he had married in 1913, with the news that he wanted to try a career as a playwriter. In August of 1920 Milnes only child, Christopher Robin was born. In 1924 Milne published an entire collection of poems written for his three- years-old son, When We Were Very Young. Then the first of the story-books, Winnie-the-Pooh, came out in 1926, with the house at Pooh Corner following in 1928 and after 1928 Milne produced no more childrens books.
At Milnes glorified hero was quit real prototype. In 1921 Milnes presented to one-year old Christopher Robin a teddy bear, which at once became the favorite of family. The teddy bear was soon named Winnie, after a real life bear that lived at the London Zoo. Winnie part came from an American Black Bear called Winnie, who was one of the most popular animals in the London Zoo at this period. Milne could not remember whether Winnie at the zoo was called after Pooh or Pooh after Winnie, but we know that that large American bear was Winnie long before Christopher was born. In 1925 the Milnes bought a Cotchford farm, which they used for weekends away from London. From this old house it was a shout walk over a bridge into the Ashdown Forest, where Christopher Robin and his teddy bear, used to play. Each daily adventure in the forest gave Milne more material for his now famous book « Winnie- the- pooh ».The illustration to it were done by Ernest Shepard, who visited the Milne family in their farmhouse and draw quite a few sketches of Christopher Robin with his bear.real life bear Cotchford farmErnest Shepard In the spring of 1925 Winnie- the- pooh was still a toy bear and not a book. He was not even a story. By march Winnie- the- pooh was largely written.. And after the success of the poems, everyone forgot about the detective story and started pressing Milne to produce another childrens books. Winnie- the- pooh, not yet looking quite himself, had started his public life. He was on his way to becoming the most famous and loved bear in literature.
So, «the children's question» is removed. However, it does not mean, that we shall not speak about the childhood. But with the childhood of it that "easy" attitude to a life to which he always remained connected it is true also which appears in his many "adults" the novel. Who does not know Winnie-the- Pooh? And who knows Winnie- the-Pooh? Those who counts him round bear with the crumpled ear and Eugeny Leonova's voice? Or those who read this fairy tale in the deep childhood and since then keeps it as nice to heart a nostalgic relic? With the same success it is possible to count itself expert Pushkin, quoting the slice which has got stuck in memory of the Curved seashore and «an oak volume». Alan Alexander Milne - the author of «Winnie-the-Pooh» - is far from being Pushkin. Besides, on his recognition, it and books of nurseries never wrote. About the childhood - yes, it happened, but in any way for children. He even - to Christopher Robin - preferred to read the son P.Vudhauza's fairy tales. Paradox: but Winnie-the-Pooh Christopher Robin - the direct hero and the reason of this book - has read only later 60 years after its issue! Milne's similar relation to " Winnie-the-Pooh" in general is typical of many authors of "cult" fairy tales. Admit, those who re-read " Winnie-the-Pooh" at adult age, unless the six-year child in all "sorts of tricks" this book is capable to estimate and take pleasure completely? I shall tell more: good fairy tales is the same literature, as well as the everything else, and all of them " flavouring scale " is accessible only to the "grown up" reader.
It was the truth, the time when it has collapsed nearly from decrepitude. When this horrifying news have transferred on the main TV channels of the Great Britain, it was found a lot of wishing to rescue "cultural value", and in May 1979 it has been restored (Disney's one company has listed 15 thousand pounds on restoration). Bridge and river for game in Puhaliki North Pole open by Pooh Eeyore corner Small house of Piglet and the tablet established in his honour Winnie-the-Pooh" is simply sated with real prototypes. First of all, it is Milne - the story-teller of histories appearing in the beginning of the book, his wife – Dorothy De Selincourt to which the fairy tale is devoted, and his son - Christopher Robin - the friend and "instructor" of Winnie-the-Pooh, the direct hero of a fairy tale, "link" between the real world and fantastic Wood. However, and a Wood is not such fantastic. Interested persons quite can visit it today. True name - Ashdown Forest is situated in England. Here it is possible to see paths on which the Winnie-the-Pooh wandered, the well- known bridge for game in Puhaliki and Six Pine Trees at which so much time met Winnie, Piglet and all. Ashdown Forest settled down close Cotchford farm got by Milnes in 1925, and the modest tablet on a rock in his most dense part reminds of it. There is both Six Pines, and North Pole "open" by Pooh, and the bridge for " games in Puhaliki", constructed in XIX century.
Character cheerful, sociable (likes to visit). At heart - practic, always ready to come to the aid. Has two strongly pronounced weaknesses - honey and poetry. He- the born, spontaneous poet, thus at all not bearing long difficult words. An opener of North Pole, the Inventor of game in Пухалки, the best friend of Piglet and Christopher Robin. Very small Essence which is taking place in this occasion in constant alarm and anxiety. However, at encouragement it is capable of brave helps friends from going down tree, builds the house for Io, gives the house to the Owl. At heart - sensitive romantic and the aesthete (carries a white scarf, admires Christopher Robins with dark blue braces). It is not deprived vanities. The typical melancholic. For this reason stays in constantly suppressed depression. At heart - it is venomous, sarcastic, envious. Aspires to cause at surrounding pity which to the full tests to itself. Such small "chief" in the Wood. It at heart vigorous, ostentatiously efficient, rational. It is constantly occupied with drawing up of various plans (sometimes rather criminal). The authority of the Rabbit is supported by his literacy (is able to read and write) and presence of huge quantity of Relatives and Familiar. As a matter of fact, he carries out function of all-knowing and almost all mighty spirit of the Wood. All questions are addressed to him. As the normal person, he unique of characters can live as inside, so outside of the Wood.
As well as it is necessary to the Owl, she plays to the Wood a role of the Wise man. Actually it for this purpose has not enough bases as she writes very illiterately, and her knowledge of long obscure words never brings practical advantage. Extremely careful Mother. Neither it is more, nor less. Has adopted even to the Tiger and any time "cared" about Piglet. Extremely the Lively child. He likes somebody to pay attention. The tigers friend. The "Integrated" variant of crumb Ru. It is awfully restless, likes TO RUN and cod-liver oil. Does not know a limit of the opportunities. Despite of dangerous vigour, it is good-natured.
Scene of action of "Winnie-the-Pooh" not less strange, than his inhabitants. Ashdown Forest - the closed place, both in space, and in time. That is behind its limits, interests its inhabitants a little, and is not clear, where these limits. One Christopher Robin - the "boundary" character between a reality and a fairy tale - sadly speaks in the end that should leave. Ashdown Forest Time in the Wood also is closed, cyclically. Here know days of week, but what for they are necessary plainly not clear (unless only that Pooh has wished someone " happy Thursday "). The age also has no value - so, Piglet " many years are awful: can be, three years, and can be, even four! As a matter of fact, the world of the Wood is the world of the Childhood, that " the easy attitude" to a life which was propagandized by Alan Alexander Milne and which in the best way managed to him to be displayed in "Winnie-the-Pooh".
Surprisingly as well that characters of a fairy tale get on in Ashdown Forest more, than piecefully life. Besides, they are always ready to come unconditionally to the aid each other. Cowardly Piglet makes a number of brave and magnanimous acts, careless the Tiger runs to help the Rabbit, the Owl flies to the aid to flooded Piglet, Rabbit, nevertheless, is ready to treat with the last the glutton of Pooh, and even bilious Eeyore shares a thistle with Tiger and tries to rescue (in the manner) fallen in the river Babe Ru, having lowered in water the tail. About Pooh, I think, to speak does not cost. "Egoism" here not only does not cancel mutual aid and friendship, but also grows gim before them.
yes arising in the inflamed brain of Pooh and Piglet imagined monsters, like Slonotop and Beeches. A wood so peaceful, that only in it, it is to open the house door to a stranger. However, leaving from the Wood, people become others. Their fine weaknesses, described by Milne, for some reason get rage and cruelty also become already true defects. But we are always free to return to that Captivated place which was, as though plaing, is created by the English writer. And dangers in the Wood not so much. They are expressed only in natural cataclysms (a storm, flooding),
. New translations were two on in all: V.Vebera and N.Rejn; V.Rudnev and T.Mihajlovoj. V.Vebera`s translation is deprived Milnes ease and humor (that with success it was possible to transfer by Zakhoder), therefore hardly readers of him will grow fond. Zakhoder so has got used to "Pooh" that has not avoided the conflict even during preparation of the script of the well-known Soviet cartoon film which has been removed by remarkable director F.Hitruk. The animator and the writer (they were also co-authors of the script) appeared so incompatible people having the sights at treatment of " Winnie-the-Pooh", that work on the cartoon film has stopped on the third series … V.Rudnev's translation is rather curious.. The Winnie-the-Pooh has been characterized as " a bear with low IQ. In the rest translators have tried to follow the original. Well, that, such translations are necessary too, but they will have hardly the mass reader. So, sleep easy, Boris Vladimirovich, to your "Pooh" have still a long life … B. Zakhoder has died on November, 7, On his tomb is situated the picture where Milne's heroes leave aside the coming sun is engraved. " And, certainly, Christopher Robin and all others say goodbye to you for fun because the Wood will be always …. and the one who is amicable with bears, can find it ".. Boris Vladimirovich Zakhoder However the Soviet readers were lucky with the translator of " Winnie-the-Pooh" It mad well known children's writer Boris Zakhoder, in perfection owning both prose, and poetry. The first edition of Soviet " Winnie-the-Pooh was published in Translation were so successful, that long time new translations was not expected.Boris Zakhoder
Millions of readers throughout the world have grown up with the stories and verses of A. A. Milne about his son Christopher Robin, Winnie-the-Pooh and the other toy animals. What was it like to be the small boy about whom they were written- with the long hair, the smock and the Wellington boots? There are many legendary people which the glory has put in difficult position, but that was their own glory. And anothers glory has got to son A. Milne! Certainly it is he has named Christopher Robin, and at him was toy bear.
The boy very early has understood, that he is important first of all as the character, that to him that is intended to live for whom other boy, on him simultaneously similar and unlike. And Christopher Robin aspired to get rid of the double just as his father wanted to avoid reputation of extremely children's writer. Real Christopher Robin went to school and at university, was at war, was wounded, after war continued education. Then rather long could not find to itself work on heart. At last, in a province has opened a book-store. Apparently, in his bench where there is a whole children's department, there are no books about Winnie-the-Pooh. There is the world of childhood, shall not speak "ideal", we tell normal. Lets the boy in the book is similar to the girl externally a little and can seem the mollycoddle, but he lives a life of the child, and it is essential feature of books of Milne, children's books for children.
The majority of heroes of " Winnie-the-Pooh" also quite taken. Pooh has been presented in 1921 to one-year-old Christopher Robin. At first it have nicknamed "Edward Bear". Edward - from diminutive Teddy (Teddy Bear - "Bear cub Teddy" - so called all teddy bears in the English-speaking countries). Milne has represented the normal boy, playful and obedient, cheerful and missing. This boy makes everything, that to him ordered, but do it in own way, childly.Teddy Bear Let's pay attention to the attitude relation Christopher Robin to toys, to all fantastic essences which surround him: it warm, friendly. Animals, around Christopher Robin, make his own world where signs of the world of adults come across, certainly, what that, but at them it on his own way. What friends are at Christopher Robin! And most important of them, certainly Winnie- the-Pooh!
Winnie-the-Pooh, and there were also other toys becoming characters of a remarkable history. Pooh was the oldest, only year younger than Milne and his inseparable companion. «Us Two-so we were in real life» -said Robin. Every child has his favorite toy, and every only-child has a special need for one. Pooh was his. Eeyore, too, was an early present. But by the time the stories came to be written his neck had gone like that and this had given him his gloomy disposition. Piglet was a present from a neighbour. But more characters were needed and so two were invented: Owl and Rabbit. Both Kanga and Tigger were later arrivals, presents from parents, carefully chosen for their literary possibilities.
«I actually did not think out, - Milne spoke, - I needed only to describe ». There were boy and his toys, - the writer so looked at them, as on the material and the employees. Pictures became a part of the text, gave the further movements to events, prompted new and new situated. Shepard has copied the boy directly with Christopher Robin. The image created by the artist has become fashionable, and much English mothers dreamed, about the child just as in the book was. As Christopher Robin!
The creator of Winnie-the-Pooh well imagined a literary zoo, with all his divisions already borrowed or still vacant. He has created the variant of "speaking" four-footed animals - toys. Here it was required as though double a real life material: that toys would come to life, as if the present animals, and that these animals would start talking, as people. Milne masterful has shown, as the boy achieves it. It is difficult to specify any concrete means with which help the author reaches such effect, but the reader all time feels process to become the person (очеловечивания) the child of the toys. It gives a really a unostentatious lesson of humanism as continuous action: the boy introduces the human attitude in surrounding him subject world. Winnie-the-Pooh, as well as all other animal inhabitants of the book, possesses existence, independent and at the same time dependent from the small owner." Such he the bear ", explains somehow Christopher Robin behavior of the shaggy friend, but behavior it - even Christopher Robin understands! By the boy it is created. Christopher Robin such what him wants to see Christopher Robin. In a word, besides unostentatiously. The responsibility for world around is assigned to a fragile children's coat hanger.
«I like to have around me the things I like today, not the things I once liked many years ago. I dont want a house to be a museum. » - said Christopher Robin. He didnt love them more because they are known to children in Australia. Eyore is the most recognizable; Piglet the least. What pity the Winnie-the-Pooh sitting in a glass box looks. And all this because is not present with him beside Christopher Robin! Game has stopped – (одухотворение) was gone. And here on a negative example an example everyone who comes to look at a legendary bear, can be convinced of value of it (одухотворения). In 1947 Mr. Makrej (head of publishing house "Datton-press")visited Milnes.He has asked the writer to transfer him fantastic heroes that they have made tour across America. For this purpose Milne even has supplied with their playful document. At first heroes of "Winnie-the-Pooh" stayed in publishing house "Datton ". Then in 1987 they have moved in the Central children's hall of branch of Public library of city of New York. And in 1996 itself teddy "sir the Winnie- the-Pooh " has been sold to the unknown buyer on the London auction for 4600 pounds sterling.
At the end of 60 th film years of the last century at Studio «Walt Disney» have started to let out short tapes about adventures of Winnie-the-Pooh. Young animations were based on several of original histories. However it is not true about more recent films and a television line, which Disney has made. Storytelling Disney's style and characterisation the general have a little with stories Milne, and very much were not loved by family Milne. Occurrence of animations occurs from illustrations Shepard, but style of figure is simplified, and characters give the exaggerated features. Winnie-the-Pooh beсame one of the most profitable literary privileges in a history. Today, Pooh video, and other things connected with him make 1 billion $ in annual incomes for Disney.
And unless you forget ours Winnie? Russian Winnie- the-Pooh is one of the most popular characters of domestic animation. He is not similar to what was created by Disney on Alan Milnes figures. And the cartoon film is removed by Feoder Hitruk that refers to, on motives of the book. But, nevertheless, today it seems, that the true Winnie-the-Pooh such: thick and little bit greedy, composing shoutings and screams. On "Souse multfilm he is almost national hero. Today animators admit, that creation of this image was given by him very uneasy. Thought out Winnie all together - artists, directors, the director and gave talk to bear Eugeny Leonov. Some features, for example clumsy gait when the top paw goes there where also bottom, Winnie has got due to technical mistakes of animators. Vladimir Zujkov, the artist: " And the trampled down ear? I have thought, that so it is better. And Feodor Saveljevich has told, that it such because the Pooh sleeps on it... " Similar on thick, the teddy bear who is at each kid, Russian Winnie is pleasant both to children, and adults more western, artists are sure. Vladimir Zujkov, the artist: "H) more charming at us. And Leonov is there was a lucky strike. " On " Cousecartune " they speak, that Milne has simply invented Pooh. And here this bear have created. Such what he is loved already with three generations of domestic spectators
Till now ten minutes cartoon by director Feodor Hitruk with Eugeny Leonov in a leaging role remain one of the most favourite animated cartoons of children! But studio Walta Disney does not overlook about the bear: in 2002 the full-length cartoon film « has been removed Winnie-the-Pooh. Christmas Pooh ». This year the company has pleased kids of one more original verses.At this time for a screen version of adventures of the bear the known director Franc Nilsen who several years ago has surprised us tremendous with " the Planet of treasures » Known business has undertaken, "Slonotop" in comparison with "Planet" looks much more modestly, but it is not necessary to forget. As the problem before the director stood absolutely other. New adventures in the Dense wood by all means will like kids. But unless it is possible to reconcile what Piglet have christened Chryney, and to a tiger - Tigruly?It is good still, that a name of the main hero have left without changes! Adventures in the Dense wood proceed …
The story goes back to 1902, when Theodore Roosevelt was President of the United States. The President was called Theodore by his friends and family, but the press and the people fondly called him Teddy. He didnt like the name, but accepted it. It made him seem more informal to the people he served. In November 1902 President Roosevelt, visiting Mississippi, decided to go out hunting for the day. After several hours, he still hadnt bagged anything. Then one of his aides discovered a lost bear cub wandering through the woods. Catching it, he tied it to a tree - here was the Presidents trophy for the day! But Roosevelt couldnt bring himself to shoot the defenceless cub, and ordered it to be set free. The newspapers were filled with cartoons depicting him with a bear. The story became fable. Today we can hardly imagine a world without this eager listener and loyal friend, the teddy bear. But how did he come into creation? Why is it called Teddy? Why not Harry or Joe or Jane? How Teddy Bear got its name:
The Teddy Bear Craze: The cartoon was seen by Mr and Mrs Michtom, who owned a candy store in New York. They put in their shop window with a copy of the cartoon, and a handwritten notice saying Teddys Bear. The Bear was such a hit with the public! Whatever its origin, the Teddy bear has become popular all over the world. It is courageous and wise, huggable and peaceful, and always willing to listen – a true comforter in times of trouble. Over the years, the cuddly toy has taken many shapes and varieties, but it remains a teddy bear, named after a president who wouldnt kill a bear cub on a hunting trip.
When Ernest was 10 years, his mother has died, and the family has moved in Hammersmith where the boy has left school St.. Paul, special attention giving painting and figure. During time I of world war Shepard served in army. From front he sent comic рисованные reporting to magazine " Punch " in which began to work after demobilization. In edition of magazine he also has got acquainted with Milne. Shepard worked in the illustrated weekly appendix to "Punch" during many years. He has illustrated set of children's books, including verses and Milne's fairy tales. In 1969 Shepard has transferred 300 figures, including original illustrations to "Winnie-the-Pooh" in Victoria and Albert's London museum. The English artist and the illustrator, the founder of a visual image of the bear cub of Winnie-the-Pooh. He was born and has lead a childhood in London, and the place of his birth is all in five minutes of walking from a place where Alan Milne was born. However there were they only in many years.
Boris Zakhoder was born in the city of Kagule. His parents here have got acquainted and have got married. The family has not for long lived in Moldova. In the beginning have moved to Odessa, then to Moscow. In the childhood Boris Zakhoder, on own recognition, was very much " the decent boy ". He not only did not play football, but even did not fight almost. In the childhood Boris Zakhoder very much liked to play. Otherwise from what it is to poet Zakhoder there would come an idea to make the book on motives of nurseries считалок. However, the well-known verses and fairy tales were still ahead. And Zakhoder began from translations. The boy, having decided " to outdo Жуковскому ", he has translated " Wood tsar " to Goethe. Boris Zakhoder has left school in 1935 and has come on a factory the pupil of the turner. Has then acted arrived in aviation institute. And here he already the student of biological faculty at first Kazan, then the Moscow university. And as to write verses he did not cease, eventually has passed to study in Literary institute. Except for "native" is at Boris Vladimirovich and "foreign" books. With his help "Englishmen" Winnie-the-Pooh, Peter Pan, Mary Poppins, girl Alisa "have studied" Russian. And we together with them have gone through such fascinating adventures, as capture Slonotop or falling in the country of Miracles. Zakhoder has not translated all these books, he has written them in Russian. Several years ago the poet has resolutely declared: " All. Children's verses any more I do not write ". But all waited. Waited till last day...
1-A. A. Milne; his life; Ann Thwite 2-The Enchanted Places by Christopher Milne; Eyre Methuell 3-The World of Winnie-the-Pooh; Poems 4-The Oxford companionto children`s literature; Humphrey Carpenter and Mari Prichard 5-http//www.winnie-the-pooh.ru/online/lib/inlit.html. 6-http://goofy.narod.ru/pooh/online/lib/rudnev.html. 7-приключения в дремучем лесу: газета Панорама TV 8-журнал «Speak Out» (4/2002)
My name is Dasha. I have been studding English for 10 years at school. My favorite subjects are: English and History. My favorite fairy tale is «Winnie-the-Pooh» so I decided to learn it closer.