Презентация на тему: " Unit-3 RECTIFIERS, FILTERS AND REGULATORS :Half wave rectifier, ripple factor, full wave rectifier, Harmonic components in a rectifier circuit, Inductor." — Транскрипт:
Unit-3 RECTIFIERS, FILTERS AND REGULATORS :Half wave rectifier, ripple factor, full wave rectifier, Harmonic components in a rectifier circuit, Inductor filter, Capacitor filter, L- section filter, - section filter, Multiple L- section and Multiple section filter, and comparison of various filter circuits in terms of ripple factors, Simple circuit of a regulator using zener diode, Series and Shunt voltage regulators
Power Supply Circuits To achieve its purpose a power supply must: –Step down the voltage supplied; –Convert ac to dc by rectifying the ac. A transformer is used to step down the magnitude of the voltages from the wall receptacle.
Transformer A transformer consists of two coils of wire on a common iron core. The voltages on these two coils are related by the turns ratio, which is the ratio of the number of turns of wire in the secondary coil to that in the primary coil.
RMS Values Note that the volts and volts are RMS values. The actual amplitude of that sinusoidal signal is a factor of 2 larger.
Rectification Converting ac to dc is accomplished by the process of rectification. Two processes are used: –Half-wave rectification; –Full-wave rectification.
Half-wave Rectification Simplest process used to convert ac to dc. A diode is used to clip the input signal excursions of one polarity to zero.
Full-wave Rectification The output of a full- wave rectifier is driven by both the positive and negative cycles of the sinusoidal input, unlike the half-wave rectifier which uses only one cycle.
Filtering Process used to smooth out the output of the rectifier circuit. One of the most common filter is the RC network.
Filtering The reduction in voltage between charging cycles is dependent on the time constant stated below:
Ripple Factor Ripple is the small voltage variation from the filters output. Good power supplies produce as little ripple as possible. Ripple is usually specified as Ripple Factor, RF :
Zener Diode Analyzing a diode operating in the reverse bias region will show that the current through it remains essentially constant until the breakdown voltage, also called the avalanche or zener breakdown voltage, is reached. At this point the current will increase very rapidly for a small voltage change.
Voltage Regulation This characteristic of the zener diode is very useful for voltage regulation circuits. The zener diode provides an effective way to clamp or limit the voltage at a relatively constant value thus creating a voltage regulation capability.