The first uncontested landing in Australia by Europeans was by Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in European explorers followed intermittently until, in 1770, James Cook charted the East Coast of Australia for Britain and returned with accounts favoring colonization at Botany Bay (now in Sydney), New South Wales. A First Fleet of British ships arrived at Sydney in January 1788 to establish a penal colony. Other colonies were established by Britain around the continent and European explorers sent deep into the interior throughout the 19th century. Introduced disease and conflict with the British colonists greatly weakened Indigenous Australia throughout the period.
SymbolImageAdop- ted Remarks Flag Flag of Australia 3 September 1901 The flag includes the southern cross, Union Jack and Federation star. National anthem Advance Australia Fair 19 April 1984 National colors Green and gold 19 April 1984 Green and gold are also the traditional team colors of Australian national sporting teams. National Floral Emblem Golden Wattle 19 August 1988 It is a tree which flowers in late winter and spring National Gemstone Opal 27 July 1993 Opal production was worth $71.4 million to Australia in 2003 and supports many communities in New South Wales, South Australia and Queensland. Coat of arms Coat of arms of Australia 19 September 1912 Originally granted by King George V
The flag of Australia is a defaced Blue Ensign: a blue field with the Union Flag in the canton (upper hoist quarter), and a large white seven-pointed star known as the Commonwealth Star in the lower hoist quarter. The fly contains a representation of the Southern Cross constellation, made up of five white stars – one small five- pointed star and four, larger, seven-pointed stars.
The flag's original design was chosen in 1901 from entries in a worldwide competition held following Federation. It was first flown in Melbourne on 3 September A slightly different design was approved by King Edward VII in Over the next few years, the exact specifications of the flag were changed several times both intentionally and as a result of confusion. The current specifications were formally gazette in 1934, and in 1954 the flag became recognized by, and legally defined in, the Flags Act 1953, as the "Australian National Flag".
The Coat of Arms of Australia (formally known as Commonwealth Coat of Arms) is the official symbol of Australia. The initial coat of arms was granted by King Edward VII on 7 May 1908, and the current version was granted by King George V on 19 September 1912, although the 1908 version continued to be used in some contexts, notably appearing on the sixpenny coin until 1966.