Preamble to the Constitution of Japan. We, the Japanese people, acting through our duly elected representatives in Parliament and Determined to provide. - презентация
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Preamble to the Constitution of Japan. We, the Japanese people, acting through our duly elected representatives in Parliament and Determined to provide for themselves and their posterity the fruits of peaceful cooperation with all nations and the blessings of liberty for all our countries, Determined to prevent the horrors of a new War as a result of government action, proclaim that sovereign power vested in the people and establish this Constitution. State power is based on the unshakable confidence of the people, its authority emanates from the people, its powers are exercised by the people, and enjoys the benefits of its people. This is - a principle common to all mankind, and it is based on the Constitution. We cancel all constitutions, laws, decrees and rescripts, contrary to this Constitution. We, the Japanese people, desire eternal peace and resolve consciousness of high ideals that define the relationships between people; We are determined to ensure our security and existence, trusting in the justice and honor of the peace-loving peoples of the world. We want to take pride of place in the international community tends to keep the peace and to permanently destroy the Globe tyranny and slavery, oppression and intolerance. We firmly believe that all peoples of the world have the right to live in peace, free from fear and want. We are convinced that no state should be guided only by their own interests, ignoring the interests of other states, that the principles of political morality are universal that adherence to these principles duty of all states that retain their own sovereignty and maintain equal relations with other states. We, the Japanese people, the honor of our country swear that every effort, we will achieve these lofty ideals and goals.
Japan elections. Japan is a country with a representative democracy. Citizens participate in government by electing their representatives to the heads of municipalities, members of local councils or Parliament. In this regard, the election of the representatives of the most important in the political life of Japan. Elections are held for the principles of universal, equal, direct, secret ballot. The right to vote to all citizens over 20 years old Japan. Age limit for members of the House of Representatives, or the heads of the regional councils of the municipality - 25 years; for members of the House of Councilors and heads of prefectures - 35 years.? Elections are held in the constituencies. They are divided into large and small. Large multi-member districts are where the elected deputies in Parliament under the proportional system, the so-called party lists. Barrier to the passage in Parliament of 2%. Small single-member districts are where elected members of Parliament and local councils by the majority system. Elections must be held within 30 days after their announcement. The duration of the parliamentary election campaign - 17 days, the other - from 5 to 17 days.
Japanese parliament (Jap. Kokkai) - the highest organ of state power in Japan and the only one in the state legislature. Is divided into two chambers, the lower house - the House of Representatives and the upper - House of Councilors. Both chambers are elected in a general election, by parallel voting. In addition to the adoption of an Act of Parliament is formally responsible for the election of the Prime Minister. For the first time Parliament was convened year, as a result of the adoption of the Constitution of the Meiji. In 1947, after the adoption of modern Japanese constitution, parliament becomes the highest organ of state power and acquires its modern look.
Houses of Parliament are elected by parallel voting. This means that the vacant seats in the Parliament are divided into two groups, who are elected by different methods. The main differences between the two chambers - the size and method of choice. Voter asked to cast two votes: one for a certain candidate for the constituency, the second for a certain party. Any citizen of Japan, has attained 20 years of age (the age of majority in Japan), can participate in the elections. House of Representatives: consists of 480 deputies elected for 4 years. Age limit - 25 years. 300 deputies are elected by the majoritarian system of electoral districts. 180 deputies are elected from party lists by proportional representation. House of Councilors: consists of 242 deputies elected for six years. Age limit - 30 years. 146 deputies are elected by the Single Non-Transferable Voting system. 98 deputies are elected from districts nationwide on party lists by proportional representation
Prime Minister of Japan (Jap., Nike with: When daidzin) - the traditional transfer title of the post head of the Japanese government (on the model of the official English transfer - Prime Minister of Japan), although the literal translation of the Japanese title - "The Prime Minister of the Cabinet". The Prime Minister is appointed by the Emperor of Japan, on the proposal of Parliament. The Prime Minister has the right to dismiss and appoint ministers. The first Prime Minister of Japan was Ito Hirobumi. The current prime minister - Shinzo Abe. Prime Minister was established in 1885 and acquired its final form with the adoption of the constitution in Shinzo Abe from December 26, 2012
The Cabinet of Ministers is the governing body of the Government of Japan. He rules the country in accordance with the laws and budget approved by Parliament. The Cabinet is often called the Government of Japan. It is headed by the prime minister - the de facto head of state. He is elected among the members of Parliament and approved by the Emperor. The Cabinet consists of the Ministers of State, the number of 14 to 17 people who head ministries. All of them appoints the prime minister. By law, all ministers must be civilians. The Prime Minister presides over the meetings of the government, has the sole authority to dismiss ministers.