The aim of the research work: revealing and studying cognitive and semantic-stylistic features of lexical means describing appearance and character of the person on the base of translation of literary texts from English into Uzbek.
The object of the research work: lexical means in English and Uzbek languages, describing the appearance and character of the person.
The subject of the research work: cognitive, semantic-stylistic features of lexical means that characterize appearance and character of a person in the translation of literary texts from English into Uzbek.
The tasks of the research work: to lay the theoretical grounds for literary translation both in theory and in practice; setting forth a creative literary stylistic method of translating literature; to analyze the concept character tags and characterization in literature; to identify a person in the context of the western culture on the base of the comparative research of cognitive, semantic-stylistic features of lexical means that characterize appearance and character of a person in literary texts.
The results obtained and their novelty: 1) the complex analysis of lexical units expressing appearance and character of the person has been attempted to analyse; 2) linguoculturological and gender essence of lexical units characterising appearance and character of the person have been revealed; 3) a national-cultural specificity of lexical units characterising appearance and character of the person has been considered; 4) lexical units have been considered as linguoculturema; 5) the role of stylistic devices and metaphoric nominations of considered lexical units in the research have been studied.
The structure of this research work: the work consists of an introduction, three main chapters, conclusion and the list of used literatures.
CONTENTS CHAPTER I. LITERARY TRANSLATION: A LITERARY STYLISTICS-BASED PERSPECTIVE 1.1 Precision, adequacy and equivalence in translation 1.2 Style as a specific problem of literary translation 1.3 Pragmatic aspects of translation Conclusion of Chapter I CHAPTER II. CREATING CREDIBLE CHARACTERS–MANNERISMS AND QUIRKS 2.1 Detective genre in literature 2.2 Characterization. Character tags in fiction. 2.3 Characters in "The Woman in White": Literary analysis Conclusion of chapter II CHAPTER III. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE ORIGINAL LITERARY TEXTS WITH THEIR TRANSLATION VERSIONS 3.1 Description of the appearance and character in fiction-translation from English into Uzbek 3.2 Personality in the context of the western culture Conclusion of chapter III FINAL CONCLUSION LIST OF LITERATURE
The following steps show how the analysis of the translation is conducted: 1- Analyzing the SLT 2- Examining the TLT 3- Comparing utterance meaning in both the SLT and the TLT 4- Back-translation1 is sometimes given to help in the process of analysis and comparison. 5- Evaluating the pragmatic equivalents that are embodied in modifications, additions, and deletions in the TLT.
A sense of reality is essential to the detective novel. The setting of a detective story, however, is of cardinal importance. In the central character of the detective novel the detective himself we have, perhaps, the most important and original element of the criminal- problem story. All good detective novels have had for their protagonist a character of attractiveness and interest, of high and fascinating attainments a man at once human and unusual, colorful and gifted. Outstanding characteristic of the detective novel: its unity of mood.
"A translated text, whether prose or poetry or non- fiction,is judged acceptable by most publishers, reviewers and readers when it reads fluently, when the absence of any linguistic or stylistic peculiarities makes it seem transparent, giving the appearance that it reflects the foreign writer's personality or intention or the essential meaning the foreign text_ the appearance, in other words, that the translation is not in fact a translation, but the original. Venuti L. Translators Invisibility: A History of Translation.NY., – P. 5.
This is the story of what a Woman's patience can endure, and what a Man's resolution can achieve. Main features" of the Englishmen are "the belief in ancestors and traditions, respect for parents, honesty, restraint in communication, gentleness with subordinates and animals, simplicity in life and resilience in the face of illness and death". John Galsworthy
Бу во қ еа аёл сабри нималарга қ обилу, эр кишинининг қ атъияти нималарга қ одирлиги тарихидир. WOMAN is associated with PATIENCE MAN is associated with RESOLUTION АЁЛ – САБР ЭР КИШИ – Қ АТЪИЯТ
Without being actually a dwarf – for he was perfectly well proportioned from head to foot – Pesca was, I think, the smallest human being I ever saw out of a show-room. Remarkable anywhere, by his personal appearance, he was still further distinguished among the rank and file of mankind by the harmless eccentricity of his character. The ruling idea of his life appeared to be, that he was bound to show his gratitude to the country which had afforded him an asylum and a means of subsistence by doing his utmost to turn himself into an Englishman. Not content with paying the nation in general the compliment of invariably carrying an umbrella, and invariably wearing gaiters and a white hat, the Professor further aspired to become an Englishman in his habits and amusements, as well as in his personal appearance. Finding us distinguished, as a nation, by our love of athletic exercises, the little man, in the innocence of his heart, devoted himself impromptu to all our English sports and pastimes whenever he had the opportunity of joining them; firmly persuaded that he could adopt our national amusements of the field by an effort of will precisely as he had adopted our national gaiters and our national white hat.
Қ адди қ омати шунчалик келишганидан, уни чиллаширлар жинсидан, деб бўлмаса ҳ ам, назаримда, ажойибхоналардан бош қ а бирон бир ерда кўзим тушган одамзод миттиси худди шу эди. Қ иёфаси билан хаммадан ажралиб туриши ҳ ам маяли-я, оддий фу қ аро орасида ўзининг беозор девонавор табиати билан яна ҳ ам зиёдро қ ўзига тортарди. Ҳ аётдан кўзлаган бирдан-бир ма қ сади соф инглиз қ иёфасига кириш билан баробар унга бошпана бўлган, қ орнини тўйдирган мамлакатга ўз миннатдорлигини из ҳ ор қ илишга уринаётгандек туюларди. Умуман миллатимизга ҳ урмат ну қ таи назаридан, ҳ ар ва қ т гетр ва о қ шляпа кийиб, зонт тутиб юриш қ или ғ и етмаганидек, ўз одатлари, эрмаклари ва ҳ атто таш қ и қ иёфаси билан инглизлашишга ружуъ қ уйганди. Биз инглизларни ўтакетган бадантарбия иш қ ивозлари деб билган бу митти одам миллий спорт анъаналаримизнинг ҳ аммасига кўр кўрона берилган бўлиб, очи қ майдонда ўтказиладиган миллий спорт эрмакларимизни ҳ ам шунчаки ирода кучи билан одат қ илиб оламан, деган қ атъи ишончи туфайли имконият топилди дегунча шу маш ғ улот билан ва қ т ўтказарди.
Without being actually a dwarf – уни чиллаширлар жинсидан, деб бўлмаса ҳ ам – Не будучи карликом в настоящем смысле этого слова Dwarfism - abnormally small adult height: less than refer to different definitions. Dwarfism is associated with a lack of growth hormone somatotropin, or violation of its conformation (structure).
Чиллашир – инсон организмида никотин кислотаси етишмаслиги,терининг ва ичак йўлларининг зарарланишидан иборат касаллик. (Осиёда тар қ алган хавфли касалликлардан яни бири чиллашир эди. Ғ. Ма ҳ камов. Саломатлик гарови.)
Gaiters originated from French, borrowed from Russian as гетр in uzbek. Шляпа is originated from Russian, consequently is borrowed from Russian. Шляпа – атрофи соябонли бош кийим (Рўпарасида шляранинг кенг соябони тагидан Хуморхоннинг кўзлари ёниб турарди. А.Мухтор, Ту ғ илиш.)
Cylinder (from German - Zylinder) - European Men's hats, representing high hat with a flat top. Cylinders as an everyday headdress were distributed throughout the XIX century.
Uzbek explanatory dictionary gives the following definition to зонт (the word is borrowed from Russian, etymologically it is a lexeme taken from Dutch): Зонтик (зонт) (р – голл) - Кун ти ғ и ёки ём ғ ирдан са қ ланиш учун тутиладиган дастали йи ғ ма чодир; шамсия, соябон. (Бойвачча зонтигини ёпиб, йўлга ў қ райди. Ойбек, Қ утлу ғ қ он.) Ўзбек тилининг изо ҳ ли лу ғ ати. I – TOM.
When I dived for him, the poor little man was lying quietly coiled up at the bottom, in a hollow of shingle, looking by many degrees smaller than I had ever seen him look before. During the few minutes that elapsed while I was taking him in, the air revived him, and he ascended the steps of the machine with my assistance. Зудлик билан шўн ғ иб унинг кетидан тушганимда бечора профессорча сув тубидаги бир чу қ урчада аввалгидан ҳ ам кичрайиб кетган ҳ олда ғ ужанак бўлиб ётарди.
… and she was always more or less undisguisedly astonished at her mother's familiarity with the eccentric little foreigner.... онасининг бу думбул-феъл митти ажнабийга нисбатан илтифоти, гарчи буни очи қ дан очи қ ифодаламаса ҳ ам, ҳ ар қ алай жи ғ ига тегарди. Uzbek explanatory dictionary : Думбул – а қ ли камро қ, тектакнамо, девонасифат. (Думбул одам, думбул табиат киши). Uzbek explanatory dictionary gives the following definition: Думбул – ақли камроқ, тектакнамо, девонасифат. (Думбул одам, думбул табиат киши).
The evident sincerity and affection which inspired these remonstrances would have influenced any man with an atom of good feeling in his composition. Мана шу самимий илтижолар замиридаги мурувват ҳ ар қ андай ба ғ ритош одамни ҳ ам эритиб юборгудек эди. Uzbek explanatory dictionary: мурувват – одамгарчилик юзасидан қ илинган яхшилик, са ҳ оват, ҳ иммат.
Our version of translation: Мана шу самимий илтижолар замиридаги ме ҳ р ҳ ар қ андай ба ғ ритош одамни ҳ ам эритиб юборгудек эди.
… when - a creak of boots in the passage outside, and in comes the golden Papa, the mighty merchant with the naked head and the two chins. … оё қ шарпаси эшитилиб, сий қ а бош, айри со қ ол, сармоядор савдогар – олтин ота кириб келди. …, когда в коридоре слышится скрип сапог и входит Золотой папа, могучий купец с лысиной и двумя подбородками.
UED: сий қ а бош– сочлари тўкилиб кетган, силли қ бош. UED. Ба ғ ба қ а – ияк остидаги осилин қ ираб турган эт (Кўчаларда... бамайлихотир сайр этиб юрган, қ ўш отли извошларда кеккайиб ўтирган, юзлари қ ип қ изил, бўйинлари йў ғ он, ба ғ ба қ алари осилган... кишилар ҳ ам учрайди. П.Турсун. Ў қ итувчи.)
Our version of translation: … оё қ шарпаси эшитилиб, сий қ а бош, айри ба ғ ба қ али сармоядор савдогар – олтин ота кириб келди.
Personality in the context of the western culture CONCEPTS "Praise" Flattery" "Compliment"
Lexical markers of the concept "Praise" are emotive adjectives admirable, capital, charming, clever, creditable, gentle, judicious, perfect, pleasant, pure, reasonable, sensible, sharp, smashing, superficial, sweet-natured, worthy, adverbs in adjective function beautifully, nicely, intensifiers astonishingly, damned, exceedingly, thoroughly, interjection wow, interjections dear me and upon my life, as well as a variety of contextual guidance of emotional semis, such as excitement, admiration for the value of the overall evaluation good, well that can be attributed to emotional linguistic units.
Lexical markers of the concept "flattery" are phrases like dear old, brain box, an old hand, queen of the box-office, a perfect missionary of peace and love, to be too sensitive, to be the greatest blessing and honor of my existence, to be the best and purest creature, to be your devoted slave, so much odor and destination, so much sweetness and odor, to be a pretty creature (little thing), to be a little jewel, to be more an angel than a man, beings like you can never grow old, intensifiers excruciatingly, especially, readily, interjections dear, dear, good gracious, why, goodness me, imaginative, poetic vocatives my gentle life, my darling, my precious, my pretty primrose, my sweet lady, gracious lady, essential juice of pine-apple, my cup of happiness' sweetener, my life and soul.
For lexical markers concept "Compliment" are attributed emotives as adorable, angel, brilliant, grand, fabulous, genius, incredible, marvel, smooth, terrific. intensifiers devilish, exceptionally, extremely, mighty, remarkably, interjection gosh, interjections By God, By love, my God, Great Scott, vocatives-allusions.
CONCLUSION The following research has provided initial definitions and details necessary for the students and readers of literary translation to be aware of before embarking on more specific arguments and applications. Different definitions of literature in the aspect of translation have been provided. The polarization between literary language and non-literary language in terms of style was recognized.
It is widely-acknowledged nowadays that translation is interaction. The key concept here is interaction. We suggest that interaction is a process which takes place not only between participants (the traditional trinity in the translation process: author, translator and target reader), but also between the signs which constitute texts and between the participants and those signs. Armed with this complex structural outline, the translator makes choices at the level of texture in such a way as to guide the target reader along routes envisaged by the ST producer towards a communicative goal.