Презентация на тему: " Topic: Features of psychomotor development of children under 1 year COMPLETED: KURBANKOZHA A.K. CHECKED UP: BAIBOLATOVA L.M. Almaty 2017 С.Ж.Асфендияров." — Транскрипт:
Topic: Features of psychomotor development of children under 1 year COMPLETED: KURBANKOZHA A.K. CHECKED UP: BAIBOLATOVA L.M. Almaty 2017 С.Ж.Асфендияров атындағы қазақ ұлттық медициналық университеті Asfendiyarov Kazakh National Medical university
PLAN 1. Importance of psychomotor development 2. The motor development 3. The cognitive development 4. The nervous system 5. The muscle and skeletal
Psychomotor development Psychological development is the set of processes that allows infants to grow up after going through many steps and stages. This is the whole psychic (psychomotor) of the individual and the body. Acquisition of motor skills (neuromuscular) and psychological (appearance by step demonstration of intellectual and emotional increasingly sophisticated). The child is anything other than adult reduced both in quantity and quality.
Importance of psychomotor development The development of the child during the first 6 years is significant in the brain (he grows as fast and more), psychomotor, personality (emotional, basic personality sets before 2 years).
The motor development Physical changes will be the basis for rapid development of the child's motor skills. Different skills are locomotor (walking, running, jumping), and postural manipulation (throwing, seize, grasp). At 6 months, the child walks with 4 legs and standing at 13 months. Specific development is influenced by environmental factors (diet and exercise).
The cognitive development A child is a motor that is to say that if he had not the opportunity to play and manipulate, he could not understand the world, that's why it's called motor development. 0 to 2 years, he governs his movements according to what he hears, he responds to his feelings by his movements. For Piaget ( ), it is the sensory motor period. The child at that time there is no link between the events even if they are repeated. When he does something that is not intentional or planned. But gradually, the baby comes to understand that things continue to exist even when he no longer sees them and starts to remember things, people, etc..
The physical changes The nervous system At birth, the structures most developed in children are the midbrain and medulla oblongata. The two structures are important as they ensure the regulation of some basic functions (power, sleep, etc..). The cerebral cortex is the set of the gray matter with the convolution entailed the midbrain. Cala governs higher functions of the individual (perception, body movement, thought, language, memory).
The physical changes The muscle and skeletal There are changes of body structures in parallel which are slower. This spread between childhood and adolescence with the stiffening (hardening of the bones). Flexibility is synonymous with vulnerability in children. Muscles lengthen and thicken first for maintaining muscles (neck) and this autonomy (legs).
Vision - in the bright light frowns, turns his eyes to the light source. Hearing - with a sharp sound, flinches or blinks. Motorika - pose "embryo" with the arms and legs brought to the trunk, movements are chaotic, slow. Brushes in the cams. Emotions - sleeps a lot, wakes up only for feeding or when wet. Newborn
1 month Vision - fixing the gaze on a fixed object or face of an adult, begins to follow the moving object, periodic strabismus, squinting eyes in bright light. Hearing - a short-term focus on sound and voice, flinches, blinking with a sharp sound. Speech - there are separate back-lingual sounds "г", "к". Motorik - in the position on his stomach raises his head, trying to hold her. Emotion - opens his mouth when he addresses an adult (oral attention). object or face of an adult, begins to follow the moving object, periodic strabismus, squinting eyes in bright light. Hearing - a short-term focus on sound and voice, flinches, blinking with a sharp sound. Speech - there are separate back-lingual sounds "г", "к". 2 months Vision is a follow-up by a glance in the horizontal plane, unstable strabismus can be preserved, one likes to look at the mother's face, geometric figures in white and black color. Hearing - listening, turning his head toward the source of sound. Speech - at the end of the second month there is a revelry. The motor-in the position on the abdomen holds the head well, keeps the embedded toy in his hand. Emotions - a smile appears when communicating with an adult.
3 MONTHS Vision - for a long time considering objects, a combined turn of the head and eyes, smoothly traces behind objects in the supine position. Hearing - he looks for the source of the sound with his eyes and turns his head. Speech - the child guzzles singing, trying to imitate the intonation of the adult's speech. Motorics - keeps the head in a vertical position, in the position on the abdomen, the support on the arms at an acute angle. Brushes are open, sticks on the toys hung in front of him, tries to seize them. When you try to pull by the arms, he raises his head. Emotions - in response to the appearance of an adult, a smile appears on the toys, the motor activity, voice reactions increase. The game - looks at, touches its hands. 4 MONTHS Vision - can translate a view from an object to an object, assessing the distance to the toy, reaches for it, examines objects at close range (binocular vision is formed). Rumor - distinguishes the voices of loved ones. Speech - loudly screams, listening to your own sounds. Motor - in the position on the abdomen, the support on the arms at a right angle, turns on the barrel. While sipping by the handles, he bends his hands in his elbows, pulls himself up. Emotions - laughs in the voice, there is a sense of fright. The game - purposefully reaches for the toy, grabs it with the entire palm of your hand. He feels his hands, body, clothes, pulls them into his mouth.
5 MONTHS Vision - can follow the look of the two objects alternately, clearly differentiates "one's own," looking for a half-hidden object. Hearing - listening to music. Speech - there are consonant sounds, syllables "ma", "ba", "na", trying to talk in their own language with toys, adults. Motorics - in the position on the abdomen rests on the hands, high lifting the upper shoulder girdle. Turns from back to belly. When sipping by the hand, he sits down. Emotions - at the sight of a new toy, an unfamiliar face is alerted, freezes, and then there is a revival or reaction of fear. The game - actively captures objects, holds the bottle with two hands. 6 MONTHS Vision - understands individual gestures of an adult (gesture, when they beckon a child into their arms). Hearing - the emergence of certain reactions to different sounds (for example, the creak of doors or steps turns his head and tries to rise in the crib to see who it is), learns familiar voices. Speech - the child can communicate with himself for a long time (self-talk). Motorics - turns from belly to back, planted holds a pose with a support on two hands, crawls to the toy, can hold in each hand a toy, shifts them from hand to hand. Emotions - with attention examines surrounding objects and people, quickly and adequately responds to the facial expression of an adult. The game - manipulates with toys.
7 MONTHS Vision - learns familiar, traces behind a fallen toy, visually evaluates the size of an object, measures its capture. Hearing - distinguishes the intonation of the voice, understands when it is praised or scolded. Speech - the elements of babbling. Motorics - sits alone or with support on one hand, creeps in a plastunian way. Emotions - the reaction of fear is replaced by cognitive interest. The game - likes to tear sheets of paper, untie ribbons, throwing toys out of the crib. 8 MONTHS Vision - interest or surprise at the sight of unfamiliar objects, fixation of attention on two objects simultaneously. Hearing - understands the concepts of "where?", "Give", "on". Speech - active babbling, syllabic speech. Motorika - steadily sits, sits down on his own, rises on all fours, stands on his knees, stands, holding on to the support. He claps his hands, hands out his hands to his relatives to be picked up, waving "goodbye". Emotions - constantly busy with some activity, there is a game contact with an adult. The game - repels objects, throws toys. Folds small items into large ones. Disassembles the pyramid.
9 MONTHS Vision - for a long time to observe the adult, there is a reaction to their facial expressions and gestures. Hearing - performs more complex verbal instructions: "Kiss Mom", "Give me a pen", "Take the ball". Speech - appear individual words, often syllabic (instead of "dog" "babaka"). Motorika - creeps, alternately moving the right, then the left limbs; stands at the support on his feet; costs; Moves, holding the support. Grabs a small object with two or three fingers. Emotions - a variety of emotional reactions in contact with the mother, communication using a gesture. Game - Can play several objects at once, tapping a toy on a toy, loves musical toys, looking for a hidden toy 10 MONTHS Sight - shows some items according to their name. Hearing - learns simple musical tunes, distinguishes ticking hours. Speech - repeats words for adults, copies the intonation of an adult. Motorics - stands without support for a short time, goes for two hands. Gathers the pyramid. Shows parts of another person's body. Under the vision control, he puts his fingers in the holes. Emotions - the reaction of displeasure to various situations, voice signals that it is wet, hungry. The game begins to play with toys, according to their purpose (the machine rolls, the ball throws). Can independently play minutes
11 MONTHS Vision - carefully examines the situation in the room, especially if it falls into another room. Hearing - understands the spoken speech, performs instructions (for example, "bring the doll"). Speech - appeals to adults for the purpose of something to communicate, often in "their" language. Motorics - stand alone, go for one hand, make the first independent steps. Put your fingers in the holes to the touch. Shows parts of his body. Emotions - there is a reaction of inhibition at the word "impossible", selectively refers to the surrounding. The game - he knows how to occupy himself, he plays himself and willingly joins the game offered by the adult, there are elementary contacts with peers. Gathers the pyramid. 12 MONTHS Vision - learns many objects in the picture. Hearing - sounds and complicates the onomatopoeic activity (the car rides - "zh-zh", pussy meows - "meow"). Speech - can speak 8-10 words, the vocabulary is constantly increasing, the pronunciation of words improves. Motorika - walks alone, squats and stands up. Emotion - empathy appears. The game - actively in contact with adults, likes to play with children. Opens the box, drawer, puts one object in the other, uses a spoon and comb to the destination
Child development from 0 to 2 years 0 to 1 month exercise reflexes 1 to 4 months primary circular reactions 4 to 8 months secondary circular reactions 8 to 12 months coordination of secondary schemata 12 to 18 months tertiary circular reactions 18 to 24 months symbolic Compared to this time, the evolution of intelligence of the child seems to gradually rise the motor plan and sign plan to the mental representation of this behavior is imitative.
List of literature 1. The nervous system childhttps:// Особенности психомоторного развития детей перво. ЯГПУ им. К. Д. Ушинского 4. Abbott, A. L., & Bartlett, D. J. (2002). Infant motor development and equipment use in the home. Child: Care, Health and Development, 27, Bar-Haim, Y., & Bart, O. (2006). Motor function and social participation in kindergarten children. Social Development, 15(2),