Логфремийн матрикс Alternat. Стратегийн Шинжилгээ гарц орц Зорилтын Шинжилгээ Асуудлын шинжилгээ Логфреймийн Х ү снэгт ТаамаглалMoVҮзүүлэлт Зорилт Гол Асуудал Өөрчлөлтийн Агуулга ҮР НӨЛӨӨ Х ү нсний хангамж сайжрах Чанарг ү й б ү тээгдэх үү н, ү йлилгээ Дэмжээг ү й техник, технологи Сайжуруулалтын ү р н ө л өө Дэмжиж буй текникийг танилцуулах нь Х ү нсний дутагдал Гол Асуудал ҮНДСЭН УЧИР ШАЛТГААН нөлөө
Алхам 4. Альтернатив Стратегийн Шинжилгээ Түлхүүр асуудлуудад хэрхэн хандаж байна вэ? Reduced rate of infection among babies & infants Нярайн эндэгдэлийн хувийг бууруулах Халдвар авах эрсдэлийн хувь нэмэгдсэн Calorific intake of babies & infants increased Mothers willing to attend mobile clinics Clinics held regularly Reduced rate of re-infection in hospital Sufficient drugs available Standards of patient care improved Төслийн зорилго Үр дагавар Гарц Үйл ажиллагаа Upgrade staff skills Institute new drug storage & control procedures INOUT Raise womens awareness of services available Replace mobile clinic vehicles & equipment
Төлөвлөлтийн 1-4 үе шатаас Логфреймийн хүснэгтэд шилжих нь 1. Асуудлын шинжилгээ Зорилтот бүлгүүд ямар асуудлуудыг тодорхойлсон бэ? High infant mortality rate High rates of infection among babies & infants High % of infections untreated High rate of re- infection in hospital Low calorific intake of babies & infants Mobile clinics held irregularly & infrequently Mothers suspicious of modern medicine Shortage of drugs Low standards of patient care by staff Focal Problem Root Causes 3. Зорилтын шинжилгээ Асуудлуудын шийдвэрлэх ямар гарц арга зам байна вэ? Reduced rate of infection among babies & infants Infant mortality rate reduced Increased % of infections treated Reduced rate of re-infection in hospital Calorific intake of babies & infants increased Mobile clinics held regularly Mothers willing to attend mobile clinics Sufficient drugs available Standards of patient care improved Focal Objective Interventions 5. Логфреймийн хүснэгт Зорилтуудыг бид хэрхэн хэмжих вэ? Activities Outputs Outcomes Project Goal Assump- tions Means of verifications IndicatorsSummary of objectives Level Health status of infants and babies improved Infant mortality rate reduced Quality of secon- dary healthcare services improved Run monthly rural clinics EXAMPLES Stakeh older Group Spokespe rson (name, title) Interests, expectations, knowledge, resources, potentials Interest and potential areas of cooperation Potential areas of conflict, resistance to cooperation 2. Оролцогчдын шинжилгээ Ямар тоглогчид өнөөгийн зорилтот хүрээнд оролцож байна вэ? 4. Альтернатив Стратегийн Шинжилгээ Гол түлхүүр асуудлыг хэрхэн шийдвэрлэх вэ? Reduced rate of infection among babies & infants Infant mortality rate reduced Increased % of infections treated Calorific intake of babies & infants increased Mothers willing to attend mobile clinics Clinics held regularly Reduced rate of re-infection in hospital Sufficient drugs available Standards of patient care improved Project Goal Outcome Output Activities Upgrade staff skills Institute new drug storage & control procedures INOUT Raise womens awareness of services available Replace mobile clinic vehicles & equipment
Үр дагавар гэж юу вэ? OUTCOMES are benefits and changes (for individuals or groups) to which people have access and that come about due to combined achievements on a lower level (called outputs). Outcomes are mostly about changes in behaviour, practices or attitudes based on newly gained knowledge or access to improved services and facilities. Examples: - Improved animal husbandry/improved crop production introduced - Improved quality of local health care services in place Note: When it makes sense TDIs should be build into the project logframe on outcome level. A project does, however, usually have more and other outcomes too. Often outcomes are only measured during evaluation, but where possible they should be looked at as part of project monitoring, e.g. improved crop production can be measured at the end of a harvest season rather than at the end of a 4-5 year phase.
OUTPUTS are the immediate results/achievements of one or more project activities. Outputs look at the improvements brought about by implementing activities. Measuring outputs does not mean counting activity targets, but finding out whether the activities have actually addressed causes of the problems. If the lack of knowledge is a cause of low productivity, a knowledge change MUST come prior to a behaviour change. Examples: - Improved knowledge on cattle breeding/crop production - Health workers knowledge on maternal health issues increased Гарц гэж юу вэ? Note: Outputs and the related activities need to be monitored regularly. Key question to be answered include: Has the activity been implemented as planned ? Has the activity actually led to the expected output?
Үйл ажиллагааны тодорхойлолт? An ACTIVITY is an action taken requiring inputs (human, technical, material and time resources) and means (funds) in order to produce a specific output Examples: - To provide training on animal husbandry/staple food production - To train health workers Note: only key activities appear in the LF Matrix and related documents, all the small tasks e.g. for conducting a training (book venue, purchase material, engage trainer, write invitations) do not enter in the LF Matrix but should be done in a detailed resource schedule (which means listing down all activities and related tasks and calculating how much each activity will cost; including a share of admin. costs)
What are Assumptions and what are Risks ? ASSUMPTIONS are circumstances or conditions important for the success of the project but outside the direct control of the project. RISKS are negative statements about what might go wrong, whereas assumptions are positive statements about the conditions that need to be met if the project is to be successful
Only if these assumptions are met will the next level of objectives be achieved. Assumptions are thus very important as otherwise we will not be able to climp up our project ladder. OUTPUT GOAL OUTCOME Hierarchy of Objectives Assumptions Climbing up the project ladder ! assumptions Then IF Activities
How to identify an assumption ? Assumptions can be identified by asking of the following questions: What else must happen so that the next higher level of objective will be realised? Whom (e.g. other NGOs. Government) do we depend on regarding certain services/inputs without which we will not be successful ? What could prevent us from achieving the objectives at the next level ? How to analyse assumptions ? Identify key assumptions Analyse their importance to project success (if important include if not important do not include in the logframe) Analyse the probability of holding true (if likely to become true do, if unlikely do not include in the logframe)
What is an indicator? An INDICATOR tells us something specific like a tooth ache indicates a rotten tooth a motion detector should alert to a burgler An indicator is a quantitative or qualitative measure that is used to demonstrate changes over time. An indicator allows us to follow-up to which extent the programme or project outputs, outcomes and goals are being or have been achieved. Therefore indicators must be clear, precise and able to be measured.
Types of Indicators Direct (directly measurable) and Indirect (e.g. proxy) Indicators Process (how) and Product (what) Indicators Quantitative (nos., frequencies etc.) and Qualitative (participation, opinions, attitude change etc.) Indicators Cross-Sector (gender, environment, children sensitive) Indicators Formative (during) and Summative (at the end) Indicators
How to formulate indicators? A useful indicator will tell us: How much ? Who/for whom ? Where? What ? When ? So if our Output is: Irrigation network functioning the indicator could read: *Indicator: 1500 ha of irrigated plots of 2000 poor farmers have been rehabilitated within 18 months in village X, Y and Z Note: The targets (= numbers/percentages) will not be mentioned in the logframe, but the ITT only
More examples of meaningful indicators Goal: Peaceful relationships restored Outcome: Violant attacks between ethnic X and ethnic Y reduced *Indicator:25% of decrease in cattle raiding between group X and group Y in village A,B and C within 24 months of project implementation Goal: Spread of HIV/AIDS reduced Outcome: Attitude towards people with HIV/AIDS changed Note: The targets (= numbers/percentages) will not be mentioned in the logframe, but the ITT only *Indicator: 75 % of community membres of all ADP communities with a HIV/AIDS/STI component in villages X,Y agreeing that I would buy food from a vendor with HIV/AIDS
Check-list for indicators Are indicators related specifically to objectives ? Are the indicators easy to use and measure ? Is a lot of time and money needed to actually measure them ? Have different types of indicators (e.g. quantitative and qualitative ones) been used ? Do the indicators measure trends over time ? How have indicators been developed/discussed ? Have all people involved understood them ? Do they measure cross-cutting-themes (e.g. environmental friendlyness of agricultural production, equal opportunities for women, reduced violence, mixed marriages, children participation, child well-being)?