General Information Alcohol may be the worlds oldest known drug. Also known as ethyl alcohol or ethanol Big business in todays society Alcohol abuse has become a major public health problem.
The path of alcohol in the body 1. Mouth: alcohol enters the body. 2. Stomach: some alcohol gets into the bloodstream in the stomach, but most goes on to the small intestine. 3. Small Intestine: alcohol enters the bloodstream through the walls of the small intestine. 4. Heart: pumps alcohol throughout the body. 5. Brain: alcohol reaches the brain. 6. Liver: alcohol is oxidized by the liver at a rate of about 0.5 oz per hour. Alcohol is converted into water, carbon dioxide and energy.
How alcohol can effect you Factors that influence how alcohol will affect a person include: age gender physical condition amount of food eaten other drugs or medicines taken
Effects on the body Alcohol is a central nervous system depressant. In low doses, alcohol can produce: a relaxing effect reduced tension lower inhibitions impaired concentration slower reflexes impaired reaction time reduced coordination
Effects On the Body Central Nervous System Accelerates the loss of brain cells, contributing to cognitive deficits. Chronic use can lead to brain damage. Liver Long-term excessive drinking can cause hepatitis (inflammation and destruction of liver cells) and cirrhosis (scarring and shrinkage of the liver).
Effects On the Body Kidneys Impairs their ability to regulate the volume and composition of fluid and electrolytes in the body. Heart Chronic, heavy alcohol use increases the risk of heart disease. Alcohol use can also worsen high blood pressure and diabetes, two risk factors for heart disease.
Statistics 16,885 alcohol-related fatalities in 2005 – 39 percent of the total traffic fatalities for the year. Nationwide in 2005, alcohol was present in 24 percent of the drivers involved in fatal crashes. The 16,885 fatalities represent one alcohol- related fatality every 31 minutes. 254,000 injured in crashes where alcohol was present an average of one person injured every 2 minutes
Two main Categories of Drugs Stimulants Cocaine Crack cocaine Amphetamines (methamphetamine, ecstasy) Nicotine
How Many Teens Use Them? A 2004 NIDA-funded study reported that the following percentages of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-graders had tried these drugs at least once: Cocaine: 3.4 percent of 8th-graders, 5.4 percent of 10th-graders, and 8.1 percent of 12th-graders Crack: 2.4 percent of 8th-graders, 2.6 percent of 10th- graders, and 3.9 percent of 12th-graders Amphetamines: 7.5 percent of 8th-graders, 11.9 percent of 10th-graders, and 15.0 percent of 12th- graders Methamphetamine: 2.5 percent of 8th-graders, 5.2 percent of 10th-graders, and 6.2 percent of 12th- graders
Two main Categories of Drugs Depressants Heroin Marijuana Barbiturates – Oxycodone, Morphine, Codeine, Valium GHB