Operation modes of the VEPP-4M used for energy spread measurements The target of our experiments was not only definition of the beam energy spread for basic modes of the collider operation, but comparison of several procedures for measurement of relative energy spread yet. NameE, MeVI WG, AI SN, AComments PSIS meson peak ZMEJ Special mode. JPSI J/ meson peak.
Оптическая схема системы диагностики Optical diagnostics was applied for measurement of the beam dimensions x,y,z and spectrum of vertical betatron oscillations.
Многоанодный ФЭУ (MAPMT) Внешний вид 16 анодного ФЭУ R5900U-00-L16 HAMAMATSU Основные параметры устройства Размеры 250 х 100 х 100 мм Интерфейс 100М (Витая пара) Объем внутренней памяти 4М (2 17 профилей пучка в 16 точках) Дискретность записи Через оборотов Анализируемый диапазон частот Несколько Гц сотни КГц Число каналов 16 Размер канала 0.8 х 16 мм 2 2 см Оптическая схема и расположение анодов ФЭУ относительно пучка
METHOD I. Spectral analysis of chromatic synchro- betatron modes of beam oscillation (I) T.Nakamura et al. Chromaticity for energy spread measurement and for cure of transverse multi- bunch instability in the SPRING-8 storage ring. Proceed. Of the PAC01, Chicago, p Relative intensities of the betatron peak and synchrotron satellites S =0.0061Q Y =7.571 E =4x10 -4 y C y E / S
The same measurements were made for various vertical chromaticity C y = Chromaticity was changed with sextupole magnets and measured from the dependence of betatron tune on the rf frequency shift. Beam oscillation was excited by a short kick with amplitude of b y. Spectrum of betatron motion was derived with FFT. Method (I)
The measured dependence of height of synchrotron satellite to the main peak is shown on the figure. The best fit of experimental points corresponds to the energy spread E = for JPSI mode; E = for PSIS mode; E = for ZMEJ mode. Method (I)
METHOD II. Chromaticity dependence of envelope of betatron oscillations This approach was proposed in (II). It was been shown that envelope A(t) of free coherent betatron oscillations, excited by kick with amplitude of b, is described as Experimentally, energy spread was determined from comparison of measured beam betatron motion with the theoretical curve A(t). (II). N.A.Vinokurov et al. The influence of chromaticity and cubic nonlinearity on kinematic of betatron oscillations. Preprint BINP 76-87, Novosibirsk, 1976 (in Russian).
Method (II) Положение ЦТ пучка The reverse Fourier transform was applied to the measured spectrum of betatron oscillations, but only y m s harmonics were taken into account. The result of this operation for ZMEJ mode and C y = 18.5 is shown at the left figure. The envelope of the derived betatron motion En(t) was compared the theoretical curve A(t). Energy spread E was used as a fitting parameter. The fitting was done for the same measurements, i.e. for the same values of chromaticity C y, that for the method (I). An example of comparison of theoretical curve with experimental data is presented at the right figure.
Method (II) The averaged derived data are: E = (3.2 ± 0.3)10 -4 for JPSI mode E = (4.6 ± 0.4)10 -4 for PSIS mode E = (6.6 ± 0.5)10 -4 for ZMEJ mode.
METHOD III. Current dependence of energy spread The experiments with the methods of (I) и (II) were done at the small beam current I 0 = mkA, when collective effects are negligible. Under experiments with mesons mass measurements beam currents were closed to beam-beam effects threshold restriction. This value was of мА, depending on the beam energy spread. The measurements of radial and longitudinal beam dimensions x,z were done for determination of current dependence. Energy spread of the beam was derived from measured radial size and known amplitude functions in the observation point. (1) - beam emittance It was supposed that main reason, caused x size and energy spread E growing, was Touschek effect. The formula (1) was used for adjustment of the energy spread dependence with the beam current:
Method III. Longitudinal beam size Measurement of the longitudinal beam size z enables us to derive the energy spread at I 0 = 0. Further beam lengthening is and caused with the ring longitudinal impedance Z /n 6 Ohm that has an inductive type. Dependence of the longitudinal beam size z vs beam current I 0 at the PSIS mode. s = , E0 =
Method III. Radial beam size At the current higher than I = 4 mA, the X (I) dependence has a threshold behavior and needs in additional studying. This threshold might be caused by microwave instability with the threshold depending on the accelerating voltage V RF. The methods (I), (II) were applied with reduced value of V rf = kV for to decrease a synchrotron frequency s that improved a resolution of the measurements described above. The collider runs of years were performed at V rf 400 kV, and instability threshold was significantly higher then the currents of the operated beams that were restricted by the beam- beam effects. Radial beam size x vs. beam current I 0. Dots-measured beam size theoretical Line - theoretical curve calculated from the energy spread growth (caused by Touschek effect. )
DISCUSSION Data of and J/ resonance scanning One can note that measurements by all three methods are in a good agreement with data of the J/y resonance scan at the E = 1548 ± 10 MeV energy performed in 2002, with reduced current WG = 652 A of the gradient wiggler All these methods are also in good agreements with the y' meson scan at the E = 1843 ± 10 MeV energy performed in One can see the distinctions of resonance width obtained with the equal wiggler current. It is an evidence of need for radial orbit stability inside wiggler and control of dispersion function into it
SUMMARY Note that the methods I and II are perturbing in respect to the machine parameters, because to measure the energy spread with reasonable accuracy, we have to change much the chromaticity and therefore to disturb the magnet lattice. To summarize, we should recognize that reliable measurement of the beam energy spread is a nontrivial problem. It requires careful use of several diagnostic techniques to have a possibility of cross validation of the measurement results.
Сompton Back Scattering (IV) VEPP-4M collider has a system of Compton Back Scattering for permanent measurement of average beam energy and energy spread. Spectrum of the scattered quanta has a shape of a flat table with a steep edge from the side of high energy. Width of the edge is about 6-8 keV that determines by the beam energy spread. VEPP-4M collider has a system of Compton Back Scattering for permanent measurement of average beam energy E and energy spread. E. The energy resolution of the scattered quanta is about 1-2 keV that provides the precision about 80 keV for average energy E and energy spread E measurement during each 10 minutes Should be mentioned, that reducing of E with CBS data took place only for 2006 year run that needs in additional investigation. The data of (III) and CBS are in a good agreement for 2004 – 2005 year runs.
Сompton Back Scattering (IV) Измерение энергии ВЭПП-4М двумя методами Измерение энергии ВЭПП-4М двумя методами июня в процессе набора интеграла светимости, 16 июля –заход на стабильность энергии Точность определения энергии: CBS 3*10-5 RD 10-6 Измерение энергетического разброса в пучке CBS методом (точность ~10%.)