Презентация на тему: " Инновационный Евразийский Университет Кафедра «Английская филология и перевод» Слайд-лекция по дисциплине «Диалектология» на тему «American Dialects »" — Транскрипт:
Инновационный Евразийский Университет Кафедра «Английская филология и перевод» Слайд-лекция по дисциплине «Диалектология» на тему «American Dialects » Для студентов специальности «Иностранный язык: два иностранных языка» Разработал: ст. преп. Рудевский А.О.
План лекции 1.Historical background of American English. 2.Vocabulary of American English. 3.Grammar system of American English. 4.Afro-American English. 5.American Indian English. 6.Dialects of the Northeast, Southern States English.
Historical background of American English 1. Beginning with the English settlement of Jamestown in 1607 and the landing of the Puritans in Massachusetts in 1620, the English language is established in America (along with Dutch, German, French, and other tongues).
2. The American Revolution creates a separate political identity, and along with it an expressed desire for a distinct linguistic identity. The Louisiana Purchase and the consequent expansion westward, accelerated by the discovery of gold in California contribute to linguistic intermingling and dialect leveling in the West.
3. The period of European immigration to the U. S. after the Civil War marks the next stage of large-scale linguistic infusions. Since the vast majority of these immigrants settled in the North, that is arguably the region where the greatest linguistic impact of immigration was also felt
Vocabulary of American English An Americanism – a word or a set expression peculiar to the English language as spoken in the USA. Cookie a biscuit; frame-up a staged or preconcerted law case; guess think; mail post; store shop. Other words derived from Native American languages include: caucus (possibly from Algonkin cau'-cau-as'u, used by Captain John Smith, who spelled it "Caw- cawaassough"), hickory (< pohickery),
Grammar system of American English Speakers of American English generally use the Present Perfect Tense (have/has + Past Participle) far less than speakers of British English. In spoken American English it is very common to use the Simple Past Tense as an alternative in situations where the Present Perfect would usually have been used in British English.
Afro-American English African American Vernacular English (AAVE)also called African American English; less precisely Black English, Black Vernacular, Black English Vernacular (BEV), or Black Vernacular English (BVE)is an African American variety (dialect, ethnolect and sociolect) of American English.
AAVE VOCABULARY bogus 'fake/fraudulent' cf. Hausa boko, or boko-boko 'deceit, fraud'. hep, hip 'well informed, up-to-date' cf. Wolof hepi, hipi 'to open one's eyes, be aware of what is going on'. English Form + West African Meaning: cat 'a friend, a fellow, etc.' cf. Wolof -kat (a suffix denoting a person) cool 'calm, controlled' cf. Mandingo suma 'slow' (literally 'cool') dig 'to understand, appreciate, pay attention' cf. Wolof deg, dega 'to understand
AAVE GRAMMAR In future sentences with gonna or gon (see below): I don't care what he say, you __ gon laugh....as long as i's kids around he's gon play rough or however they're playing. Before verbs with the -ing or -in ending (progressive): I tell him to be quiet because he don't know what he __ talking about.
Negatives in AAVE I ain't step on no line. I said, "I ain't run the stop sign," and he said, "you ran it!" I ain't believe you that day, man. Ain't no white cop gonna put his hands on me. Can't nobody beat 'em Can't nobody say nothin' to dem peoples!
American Indian English The term American Indian English refers to a number of varieties of English that are spoken by indigenous communities throughout North America. Each one is unique in its phonology, syntax and semantic properties (Mojave English, Isletan English, Tsimshian English, Tohono O'odham English, and Inupiaq English).
Dialects of the Northeast Eastern New England: Parts of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Vermont. The speech of this region is characterized by the retention of rounded vowel in words like "hot" and "top"; the use of "broad a" [a] in words like "fast" and "path" (i.e., the vowel sound in father); the loss of r in car (Boston is the "focal area" of this dialect).
New York City: the presence or absence of r has become class marker; cot /caught are phonemically contrasted; the pronunciation of curl as "coil" and bird as "boid" is characteristic of working-class speech. Mencken reports that this feature was apparent in speeches by presidential candidate Alfred E. Smith in 1928.
Inland Northern: Western New England, upstate New York,and the basin of the Great Lakes share features of pronunciation resulting from the settlement patterns established during the western migrations along lakes. This variety distinguishes "long" o in words like "mourning" and "hoarse" from the "shorter" sound in "morning" and "horse"; the -th sound (interdental fricative) is "voiced" in "with" (i.e., the sound at the beginning of "the" as contrasted with "thin").
North Midland speech retains r in all positions (like Inland Northern) and has flat a [æ] in "grass" and "ask." Within this region is a sub-area including the eastern half of Pennsylvania, Southern half of New Jersey, the northern half of Delaware, and adjacent parts of Maryland. Speakers have an unrounded vowel ([a], the sound in "father") in words like "forehead," "forest," and "hot"; "short" e (as in "pest") in "care," "Mary," and "merry"; and they merge long and short o before r in "four" and "forty.
Southern States English South Midland (Mid Southern): West Virginia, the mountains of Virginia and North Carolina, most of Kentucky and Tennessee. Post-vocalic r is retained in this variety; the diphthong in "right" and "bye" is often pronounced more like the vowel in "father."
Southern: important focal areas are the Virginia Piedmont and the low country near the coast of South Carolina. This variety is characterized by the loss of r finally and before consonants; the unrounded vowel (as in "father") in "top" and "hot," flat a in "grass," "dance," and "path." A very distinctive feature is the treatment of the vowel in "house," "South," and "out": instead of diphthong [aw], Southerners begin this diphthong with [æ] before voiced consonants.
General American used to be thought of as most of the Western half of country, and refers to a dialect characterized by the retention of r, "flat a," and an unrounded vowel in hot. This is a kind of "idealized" dialect (broadcast English) generally thought of as "Standard."
Литература 1.Антрушина Г.В., Афанасьева О.В., Морозова Н.Н. Лексикология английского языка: Учеб. Пособие для студентов. – 3-е изд., стереотип. – М.: Дрофа, – 288 с.; 2.Бубенников О.А. Актуальные проблемы исторической морфологии диалектов английского языка. – М.: Изд-во Моск. ассоц. Лингвистов- практиков, – 205 с.; 3.Расторгуева Т.А. История английского языка: Учебник/Т.А.Расторгуева. – 2-е изд. Стер. – М.: ООО «Издательство Астрель»: ООО «Издательство АСТ», – 352 с. – На англ. языке.