Summing up the achievements of human civilization, «American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers» made a rating of the most significant discoveries made throughout its history.
The greatest achievement of scientific thought has been unanimously recognized the periodic table of elements of the Russian scientist Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleyev (1869), without which all research in chemistry and nuclear physics would be very difficult.
Mendeleyev is known for many even more important than the periodic table: it was he who defined the "ideal degree for Russian vodka - 40%. In addition, the great scientist fascinated manufacture of luggage, and was an active member of the Union of Russian People "- better known as the " Black Hundreds. "
On the second set AIMMPE discovery of iron smelting technology - these things important for the development of the civilization of the future event has occurred, according to the institute in Egypt in 1550 BC Well, in the history of Institute staff understand much worse than in the technologies and materials - otherwise they would know that first began to smelt iron by the Hittites, and it happened 300 years earlier in Asia Minor.
The third place went to the transistor, invented in 1948 by the American scientists William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Bratteynom, which earned him the Nobel Prize. Opening marked the beginning of the miniaturization of electronics, that's just why it is so undeservedly been forgotten radio tubes, from which it started and electronics?
On the fourth is irreplaceable material, like glass, which appeared in 2200 BC in the eastern Mediterranean. For scientists it is special material of construction of laboratory dishes, but for the masses - containers for beer and stronger drinks.
Microscope, the Dutch scientist and inventor Antony van Leeuwenhoek ( ) took the fifth place. He assembled the instrument by which initially considered the flea, and then looked at a drop of water - and was horrified! Since then, this self-taught genius drank only tea and wine.
In the sixth place is cement, which began to be applied to the XVIII century and a revolution in construction. Incidentally, the newly 57-year-old Berlin architect Friedrich Lantz decided to make a revolution in production technology of the cement, suggesting make it out of the dog shit...
The invention of steel, which is believed to have occurred 300 BC in India, received the seventh place. Needless to say - steel blades and armor, and then steel guns, tanks and battleships played a crucial role in bringing together disparate empire into a single modern civilization.
On the eighth place is the technology of production of more ancient weapons-grade material - copper. At first it was mined in the simplest way by finding nuggets of copper. When they finished, around 5000 years ago in Asia Minor, someone's brightest minds have learned to smelt it from minerals. One of the oldest areas of metallurgy was Donbass, where archaeologists have found copper mines and furnaces for smelting.
On the 10th place is converter for the smelting steel from iron, which has set up English engineer Henry Bessemer ( ). The method of obtaining the method martenovsky AIMMPE somehow ignored.