2011 – is devoted to chemistry. On the 19 th of November will 300 years of M. V. Lomonosov birthday.The minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia Sergey Lavrov by governments initiative with offer to declare 2011 year – the year of Chemistry. So was born this holiday. And United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization on the 5 th of November 2011 determined this as a holiday of world culture.
Mikhail Lomonosov was born in 1711 in the family of a fisherman in the northern coastal village of Denisovka not far from Archangelsk. When he was ten years of age his father began to take him sea fishing. The dangerous life of a fisherman taught him to observe the natural phenomena more closely. During the long winter nights young Lomonosov studied his letters, grammar and arithmetic diligently.
Being the son of a peasant, he was refused admission to the local school. After some years, through concealing his peasant origin, he gained admission to the Slavonic-Greek-Latin Academy and for five years lived a hand-to-mouth existence on three kopecks a day. The noblemens sons studying with him made fun of the twenty-year-old giant who, in spite of the jeers and his own poverty, made rapid progress.
After five years came the chance of entering the Academy of Sciences, as there were not enough noble-born students to fill the quota. His ability and diligence attracted the attention of the professors and as one of three best students he was sent abroad. He spent all the time there studying the works of leading European scientists in chemistry, metallurgy, mining and mathematics. On his return to Russia in 1745 he was made a professor and was the first Russian scientist to become a member of the Academy of Sciences.
When a boy he didnt go to school as there were no school where he lived. Instead he studied Russian grammar and arithmetic on his own while helping fisherman at sea. In 1730 young Mikhail went to Moscow to get a regular education. In 1731 he became an academy student. He made wonderful progress and in 1731 won a scholarship to University of Marburg, Germany. There he worked in the field of sciences and also wrote lyric poetry.
In 1745 he returned to Saint Petersburg and was appointed professor of chemistry at the Academy of Sciences. Working there he organized a laboratory and made a lot of discoveries in chemistry and physics. He is also known as a reformer of the Russian language and a contributor to Russian literature. In 1757 he became a councillor of Moscow University which he had helped to found.
For versatility Lomonosov has no equal in Russian science. Many of his ideas and discoveries only won recognition in the nineteenth century. He was the first to discover the vegetable origin of coal, for instance, and as a poet and scientist he played a great role in the formation of the Russian literary language, eliminating distortions and unnecessary foreign words. He died in His living memorial is the Moscow University, which he founded in 1755.
M. Lomonosov made a great contribution in development of chemical science in Russia. Sarkisov – the academician, professor, Doctor of Technical Science, president of Russian University named after Mendeleyev says: The motto for chemists: To achieve and excel. All Russia produces production for 42 milliard dollars, but one German firm Buyer for 60 milliard dollars. During this year will be created many separate groups, relations. Now it is Renaissance of Chemistry in Russia.
2011 is famous for its jubilees. It is called the international year of chemistry years of lomonosovs birthday years of the first international Union of chemists years since Mary Curie got Nobel Prize for exploration of radium and polonium. And also other facts in Russia connected with 300 hundred: -- on the 28 of February was 300 years of Lipetsk. -- on the 10 th of February the citizens of hero city Tula celebrated 3oo years of weapon production.
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