Red Square Москва 2007 год ГОУ СОШ 1905 ЮВАО г. Москвы Ученик – Сычева Снежана Николаевна 11 «А» Учитель – Широкова Наталья Павловна. - презентация
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Red Square Москва 2007 год ГОУ СОШ 1905 ЮВАО г. Москвы Ученик – Сычева Снежана Николаевна 11 «А» Учитель – Широкова Наталья Павловна
Welcome to Red Square Red Square is the main square of Russias capital. Its history is inseparably linked with the history of the Kremlin. According to chronicles, the square took shape in the late 15th century, when Ivan III ordered that all wooden structures around the Kremlin, which were potential fire hazards, be pulled down and a marketplace be made instead. Thus appeared the first name of the site: Torg, or the Mart. Since then, it has always been a center of trade, unlike the grand Cathedral Square of the Kremlin. In the 16th century, the square began to be called Troitskaya, after the Church of the Holy Trinity, which stood where the Cathedral of St. Basil was later constructed. According to documents from the 17th century, the square was then called Pozhar (Fire), and only afterward received its current name, whose first meaning is not red, but beautiful, fair, the best. Red Square witnessed many historical events of major importance. In 1612, its bells rang out to meet the voluntary militia rallied by Minin and Pozharsky; two centuries later, they greeted Kutuzovs army, which liberated Moscow from Napoleons troops. It witnessed the somber parade of 1941, when soldiers marched across the square and went from there straight to the front lines, and the unforgettable victory parade of 1945 with Nazi flags cast on the ground before the Kremlin walls.
St. Basils Cathedral St. Basil Cathedral is one of the most outstanding and remarkable monuments of Old Russian architecture. In the 16th century the tourists admired the beauty of the cathedral, and for the Russians it became the symbol of native history and culture. In 1552 the temple consecrated in honor of Saint Trinity was put up. The temple was to commemorate the victory of Ivan the Terrible over Kazan and Astrakhan khanate. In 1554 Tsar ordered to construct the Cathedral of the Intersection of the Blessed Virgin on the site of the temple. According to chronicles, St. Basil Cathedral was designed by Russian architects Postnik and Barma. There is the legend saying that Ivan the Terrible admired the beauty of the cathedral and ordered to blind the architects so they could never construct such a masterpiece again. In St. Basil Cathedral there are 9 icon-stands containing about 400 icons of the 16th-19th centuries. The icons are great examples of Moscow and Novgorod schools of icon painting. The walls of the cathedral are decorated with oil paintings and frescoes of the 16th-19th centuries. In the cathedral one can see portrait and landscape painting of the 19th century, and church plate of the 16th-19th centuries. Among the most precious items is the chalice of the 17th century that used to belong to Tsar Aleksey Mikhailovich. In the middle of the 20s of the 20th century St. Basil Cathedral got the status of museum. Since 1934 it is the branch of the State Historical Museum in Moscow.
Place of Skulls Tradition links the Place of Skulls with the deliverance of Moscow from the invasion by the Tatars in Chronicles first mention it in 1549, when the 20-year-old Tsar Ivan the Terrible gave a speech to the people from the Place of Skulls, calling for reconciliation among warring boyars. The Place of Skulls that is made of stone with cast-iron gates was built under Boris Godunov. Before the capital was moved to St. Petersburg, the Place of Skulls was the main public and political tribune in Moscow. The Tsars decrees and important state documents were proclaimed here, and the relics of saints were placed here for everyone to see. Legend has it that under Vasily Shuysky, people healed themselves with the miraculous relics of Tsarevich Dmitry, who died in Uglich. Place of Skulls is a translation of the Hebrew word Golgotha. Contrary to popular opinion, executions were not held in the Place of Skulls. Unruly boyars, the rebellious Streltsy and Stepan Razin were executed at some distance from the Place of Skulls, which was considered holy. In the 18th century, the Place of Skulls was moved slightly to the east and rebuilt according to the project of Matvey Kazakov. In 1 May 1919, in accordance with Lenins plan of monumental propaganda, a coloured wooden statue of Stepan Razin with his gang was unveiled here, which was later taken down.
The State History Museum The founders of the State History Museum in the center of Moscow, Count Alexey S. Uvarov ( ) and historian Ivan Ye. Zabelin ( ), wanted it to serve the ideas of enlightenment and to promote national self-determination. Architects R.O. Sherwood and A.A. Semyonov expected the construction of the museum to return Russian architecture to its national traditions. It was not by chance that they decided to construct the depository of the sacred objects of Russian history opposite an ancient Russian holy place, the Cathedral of St. Basil the Blessed. Every element of architecture and painting in this building constructed in represents an artistic version of Russian history: its facades and interiors, wall and ceiling paintings by F.G. Toropov, V.M. Vasnetsov, G.I. Semiradsky and I.K. Aivazovsky, the designs on the mosaic floors, even the transoms, casings and wrought-iron grills. The outer hall leading to Red Square is decorated with a family tree of Russian emperors based on the frescoes in the Novo-Spassky cloister in Moscow. The walls of the museum are red brick, just like the Kremlin walls. The building is topped with turrets, also reminiscent of the Kremlin. The museum opened in Russias history and culture since ancient times is represented by 4.5 million display items and 12 million pages of documents.
Statue of Minin and Pozharsky Prince Dmitry Pozharsky and Nizhny Novgorod citizen Kozma Minin headed the war of liberation of the Russian people against the Lithuanian and Polish interventionists, which ended with the expulsion of the invaders from the Kremlin in Initially, it was planned to unveil this statue in 1812, on the 200th anniversary of the heroic events, but this was stopped by a new invasion, this time by Napoleons army. Finally, in 1818, on money collected by pledge in Nizhny Novgorod, Minins native city, the monument by sculptor I. Martos was unveiled by the main entrance to the higher trade rows. The sculptor depicted the moment when Kozma Minin, pointing to Moscow, hands Prince Pozharsky an antique sword and calls on him to head the Russian forces. Resting on his shield, the wounded Minin rises from his bed, symbolizing the awakening of national consciousness in one of the countrys darkest hours. The unveiling of the monument was accompanied by a parade of guards and rejoicing by thousands of people who gathered on Red Square. In 1930, the monument was deemed to be a hindrance to demonstrations, and it was moved to St. Basils Cathedral.
Lenin Mausoleum In Red Square in Moscow (Arch. A.V.Shchusev) is the tomb of V.I.Lenin, and is one of the masterpieces of the Soviet architechture. The first (temporary, wooden) building was opened January , near the Senate Tower of the Kremlin in Red Square. This building was a truncated step-like pyramid with two L-like structures with staircases adjoining it at two sides. Visitors descended the right staircase, moved along the three sides of the sarcophagus and exited by the left staircase. Two months later the temporary wooden Mausoleum was closed, and the construction of the new wooden Mausoleum began and lasted March through August The new Mausoleum was a large (9m high and 18m long) truncated step-like pyramid, now the staircases were incorporated into the general volume of the building. To ensure longevity of the wooden elements, they were treated with oil varnish, and as the result, the color of the building was strict light brown. The tension bars, doors and columns of the top portico were of black oak. The wooden siding was fastened with forged nails having large figured heads. Five years later, the construction of the stone Mausoleum began (July October 1930). In plan, the stone Mausoleum is practically the same as the wooden building. Visitors enter the main entrance and descend the left 3m wide staircase (the walls are faced with labradorite) into the memorial hall. The hall is cubic in form (face length is 10m) with a step-like ceiling. A wide black labradorite band with red porphyritic pilasters on it runs round the periphery of the hall. To the right of the pilasters run the bands of black polished labradorite, with zigzag bright red smalta strips between them. Visitors move along the low podium around the sarcophagus from the three sides, exit the memorial hall, ascend the right staircase and exit the Mausoleum through the door in the right wall. Constructively, the frame of the building is reinforced concrete; the walls are filled with brick and faced with polished marble, labradorite, porphyry, and granite. The length of the Mausoleum facade is 24m, the height 12m. The top portico is shifted to the Kremlin wall (in the wooden Mausoleum, it was shifted to the facade). The Mausoleum pyramid consists of five projections of different height (in the wooden building they were six). In 1945 a tribune for top officials was arranged on the first projection. Admission is on Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Saturday, from a.m. till 1.00 p.m.
GUM 1953 can be considered the date of the Trading House's rebirth. In August of this year the Soviet government ordered the reconstruction of the building at 3 Red Square. A labor force from all over the USSR was assembled to carry out this top-priority project. In record-breaking time (by November of the same year) the new trade centre, the biggest in all of Soviet Russia, was opened. The State Department Store GUM had been reborn. This «emporium of exemplary trade», a vast collection of scarce and quality goods, soon established itself as a Mecca for native customers and a symbol of the USSR capital, on a par with the Kremlin, Lenin's Mausoleum and VDNKh. The GUM building reconstruction At the beginning of the 90's the economic realities changed in the country. Consequently the trade policy of GUM also underwent transformation. The majority of the space was occupied by independent shops under lease. Today, at 80,000 square meters, GUM offers an extensive list of goods to its clients: from brand designers clothes and jewellery, to everyday household goods. The assortment of what's on offer is vast and customers will find leading sport brands (Adidas, Reebok, Nike, Puma) and popular manufacturers of casual wear and shoes (CK, Levi's, Ecco) as well as upmarket designer labels (Louis Vuitton, Christian Dior, Chamet etc.). Clothes, shoes, underwear, household textiles, jewellery, furs, utensils… GUM may have lost its centralization, but it has conserved the principle of universality. GUM. Beginning of the 90's. However GUM is more than just a shopping mall. It is a mini-metropolis, where you can find many of the facilities you might need in any city, such as a pharmacy, bank, opticians or florist. It is a monument of architecture. It is a comfortable rest and recreation area, with many restaurants and cafes. It is an art gallery and a place for social activities. It is an essential part of Russian history and a must-see for every visitor to the country.