Sequencing your ideas In order to help your audience understand, you need to link these ideas together. One of the most important ways to link ideas is to sequence them. Sequencing refers to the order in which events happened. These are some of the most common ways to sequence in writing or speaking:
Beginning: Firstly, First of all, To start off with, Initially, Examples: Firstly, I began my education in London. First of all, I opened the cupboard. To start off with, we decided our destination was New York. Initially, I thought it was a bad idea,...
Continuing: Then, After that, Next, As soon as / When + full clause,... but then Immediately, Examples: Then, I started to get worried. After that, we knew that there would be no problem! Next, we decided on our strategy. As soon as we arrived, we unpacked our bags. We were sure everything was ready, but then we discovered some unexpected problems. Immediately, I telephoned my friend Tom.
Ending: Finally, In the end, Eventually, Lastly, Examples: Finally, I flew to London for my meeting with Jack. In the end, he decided to postpone the project. Eventually, we became tired and returned home. Lastly, we felt we had had enough and went home.
Discourse Markers - Linking Your Ideas in English Some words and phrases help to develop ideas and relate them to one another. These kinds of words and phrases are often called discourse markers. Note that most of these discourse markers are formal and used when speaking in a formal context or when presenting complicated information in writing. with regard to; regarding; as regards; as far as ……… is concerned, as for These expressions focus attention on what follows in the sentence. This is done by announcing the subject in advance. As regards and as far as………is concerned usually indicate a change of subject
Examples: His grades in science subjects are excellent. As regards humanities … With regard to the latest market figures we can see that... Regarding our efforts to improve the local economy, we have made... As far as I am concerned, we should continue to develop our resources. As for John's thoughts, let's take a look at this report he sent me.
on the other hand; while; whereas These expressions give expression to two ideas which contrast but do not contradict each other. Examples: Football is popular in England, while in Australia they prefer cricket. We've been steadily improving our customer service center. On the other hand our shipping department needs to be redesigned. Jack thinks we're ready to begin whereas Tom things we still need to wait.
however, nonetheless, nevertheless All these words are used to present two contrasting ideas. Examples: Smoking is proved to be dangerous to the health. Nonetheless, 40% of the population smokes. Our teacher promised to take us on a field trip. However, he changed his mind last week. Peter was warned not to invest all of his savings in the stock market. Nevertheless, he invested and lost everything.