Diphtheria Prepared by Yuliya Boldova Student of СД -14. - презентация
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Diphtheria Prepared by Yuliya Boldova Student of СД -14
What is diphtheria? Diphtheria is a serious bacterial infection that affects the mucous membranes of the throat and nose. Although it spreads easily from one person to another, diphtheria can be prevented through the use of vaccines.
What Causes Diphtheria? A type of bacteria called Corynebacterium diphtheria causes diphtheria. The condition is typically spread through person-to-person contact or through contact with objects that have the bacteria on them, such as a cup or used tissue. You may also get diphtheria if youre around an infected person when they sneeze, cough, or blow their nose. Even if an infected person doesnt show any signs or symptoms of diphtheria, theyre still able to transmit the bacterial infection for up to six weeks after the initial infection The bacteria most commonly infect your nose and throat. Once youre infected, the bacteria release dangerous substances called toxins. The toxins spread through your bloodstream and often cause a thick, gray coating to form in the: nose throat tongue airway In some cases, these toxins can also damage other organs, including the heart, brain and kidneys. This can lead to potentially life-threatening complications, such as myocarditis, paralysis, or kidney failure.
What Are the Risk Factors for Diphtheria? Children in the United States and Europe are routinely vaccinated against diphtheria, so the condition is rare in these countries. However, diphtheria is still fairly common in developing countries where immunization rates are low. In these countries, children under age 5 and people over age 60 are particularly at risk of getting diphtheria. People are also at an increased risk of contracting diphtheria if they: 1.arent up to date on their vaccinations 2.visit a country that doesnt provide immunizations 3.have an immune system disorder, such as AIDS 4.live in unclean or crowded conditions
What Are the Symptoms of Diphtheria? The most visible and common symptom of diphtheria is a thick, gray coating on the throat and tonsils. Other common symptoms include: a fever chills swollen glands in the neck a loud, barking cough a sore throat bluish skin drooling a general feeling of uneasiness or discomfort Additional symptoms may occur as the infection progresses, including: difficulty breathing or swallowing changes in vision slurred speech signs of shock, such as pale and cold skin, sweating, and a rapid heartbeat
How Is Diphtheria Diagnosed? Your doctor will likely perform a physical exam to check for swollen lymph nodes. Theyll also ask you about your medical history and the symptoms youve been having. Your doctor may believe that you have diphtheria if they see a gray coating on your throat or tonsils. To confirm the diagnosis, theyll take a sample of the affected tissue and send it to a laboratory for testing. A throat culture may also be taken if your doctor suspects diphtheria of the skin.
How Is Diphtheria Treated? Diphtheria is a serious condition, so your doctor will want to treat you quickly and aggressively. The first step of treatment is an antitoxin injection. This is used to counteract the toxin produced by the bacteria. Make sure to tell your doctor if youre allergic to the antitoxin. They may be able to give you small doses of the antitoxin and gradually build up to higher amounts. Your doctor will also prescribe antibiotics, such as erythromycin and penicillin, to help clear up the infection. During treatment, your doctor may have you stay in the hospital so you can avoid passing your infection on to others.
Preventing Diphtheria Diphtheria is preventable with the use of antibiotics and vaccines. The vaccine for diphtheria is called DTaP. Its usually given in a single shot along with vaccines for pertussis and tetanus. The DTaP vaccine is administered in a series of five shots. Its given to children at the following ages: 2 months 4 months 6 months 12 to 18 months 4 to 6 years In rare cases, a child might have an allergic reaction to the vaccine. This can result in seizures or hives, which will later go away. Vaccines only last for 10 years, so your child will need to be vaccinated again around age 12.