Poliomyelitis Prepared by Yuliya Boldova Student of СД-14. - презентация
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poliomyelitis Prepared by Yuliya Boldova Student of СД-14
What Is Polio? Polio (also known as poliomyelitis) is a highly contagious disease caused by a virus that attacks the nervous system. Children younger than 5 years old are more likely to contract the virus than any other group. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), one in 200 polio infections will result in permanent paralysis. However, the disease has been largely eradicated thanks to the development of a polio vaccine.
Types of Polio There are three types of polio infections: Sub-clinical: Approximately 95 percent of polio cases are sub-clinical, and patients may not experience any symptoms. This form of polio does not affect the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord). Non-paralytic: This form, which does affect the central nervous system, produces only mild symptoms and does not result in paralysis. Paralytic: This is the rarest and most serious form of polio, which produces full or partial paralysis in the patient. There are three types of paralytic polio: spinal polio (affects the spine), bulbar polio (affects the brainstem), and bulbospinal polio (affects the spine and brainstem). Post-polio syndrome is a complication that can occur after a person has caught and recovered from poliovirus. Symptoms of the syndrome can appear up to 35 years after the polio infection.
What Causes Polio? Poliovirus is often transmitted from person-to-person through fecal matter. People living in areas with limited access to running water or flush toilets often get the virus from drinking water contaminated by human waste that contains the virus. Pregnant women, people with weakened immune systems, such as HIV+ people, and young children are the most susceptible to the polio virus. If you have not been vaccinated, you increase your risk of contracting polio by: traveling to an area that has had a recent polio outbreak taking care of or living with someone infected with polio handling a laboratory specimen of the virus having your tonsils removed extreme stress, which can compromise immune system function
Recognizing the Symptoms of Polio Sub-Clinical Polio If patients do have symptoms, they usually last for 72 hours or less and may include: headache sore, red throat slight fever vomiting general discomfort
Non-Paralytic Polio The symptoms of non paralytic polio may last for a couple of days to a week or two and includes fever sore throat in the absence of upper respiratory infection headache vomiting fatigue abnormal reflexes problems swallowing and/or breathing back and neck pain and stiffness, particularly neck stiffness with forward flexion of the neck arm and leg pain or stiffness muscle tenderness and spasms
Paralytic Polio People with paralytic polio experience the symptoms associated with non-paralytic polio first. Soon after, the following symptoms appear: loss of reflexes severe spasms and muscle pain loose and floppy limbs, sometimes on just one side of the body, this is due to the weakness which results from the involvement of the spine sudden paralysis (temporary or permanent) deformed limbs (especially the hips, ankles, and feet due to prolonged weakness and the lack of appropriate orthopedic bracing
Post-Polio Syndrome The symptoms of post-polio syndrome are: continuing muscle and joint weakness muscle pain that gets worse becoming easily exhausted or fatigued muscle wasting, also called muscle atrophy trouble breathing and/or swallowing sleep related breathing problems (sleep apnea) becoming easily cold or new onset of weakness in previously uninvolved muscles
How Do Doctors Diagnose Polio? Doctors will use the patients reported symptoms to help determine whether he or she has polio. During a physical examination, a doctor may notice that the patient has impaired reflexes, back and neck stiffness, or difficulty lifting his or her head while lying flat. To definitively diagnose polio, a doctor will take a sample of the patients throat secretions, stool, or cerebrospinal fluid (fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord). The sample is then tested to see if it contains poliovirus and if the cells in the cerebrospinal fluid demonstrate changes consistent with what is called aseptic meningitis (a brain infection)
How Do Doctors Treat Polio? The most common treatments include: rest painkillers to relieve headaches, muscle aches, and muscle spasms antibiotics for urinary tract infections portable ventilators to help with breathing physical therapy and/or corrective braces to help with walking heating pads or warm towels to ease muscle aches and spasms physical therapy to treat pain in the affected muscles physical therapy to address breathing and pulmonary problems and then pulmonary rehabilitation to increase the patients pulmonary endurance as the acute breathing problems improve
How to Prevent Polio The best way to prevent polio is to get vaccinated. Children should get polio shots according to the CDC vaccination schedule, shown below. Age 2 months One dose 4 months One dose 6 to 18 months One dose 4 to 6 years Booster dose