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Made by: Sagitova Dana Group: General Medicine Checked by: Markhabat Temirbekova
Early Islamic philosophy or classical Islamic philosophy is a period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar (early 9th century CE) and lasting until the 6th century AH (late 12th century CE). The period is known as the Islamic Golden age.
Al-Farabi was a renowned philosopher and jurist who wrote in the fields of political philosophy, metaphysics,ethics and logic. He was also a scientist, cosmologist, mathematician and music scholar. Farabism In Arabic philosophical tradition, he is known with the honorific "the Second Master", after Aristotle. He is credited with preserving the original Greek texts during the Middle Ages because of his commentaries and treatises, and influencing many prominent philosophers, like Avicenna and Maimonides. Through his works, he became well-known in the East as well as the West. His birthplace is Fārāb on the Jaxartes (SyrDarya) in modern Kazakhstan. By the 13th century, Fārāb on the Jaxartesmwas known as Otrār Al-Farabi also wrote a commentary on Aristotle's work, and one of his most notable works is Al-Madina al-Fadila (اراء اهل المدينة الفاضلة و مضاداتها) where he theorized an ideal state as in Plato's The Republic. Al-Farabi represented religion as a symbolic rendering of truth, and, like Plato, saw it as the duty of the philosopher to provide guidance to the state. Al-Farabi incorporated the Platonic view, drawing a parallel from within the Islamic context, in that he regarded the ideal state to be ruled by the prophet-imam, instead of the philosopher-king envisaged by Plato. Al-Farabi argued that the ideal state was the city-state of Medina when it was governed by the prophet Muhammad as its head of state, as he was in direct communion with Allah whose law was revealed to him.
Farabi's religious belief There are many different opinions on what Al-Farabi's religious beliefs are. On one hand, Corbin believes that according to evidence, there are many similarities between prophetic philosophy and the political philosophy of Al-Farabi, including some prophetic Shiite philosophy. The immigration of Al-Farabi to Aleppo is also of interest because the ruling government there was the Shiite Hamdani dynasty. To some there is no doubt that Al- Farabi was a Shiite philosopher.Najjar Fauzi also refers to the point that Al- Farabi may be Shiite because his political philosophy seems to influenced by Shiite sects. But on the other hand, somebody like Majid Fakhry insist that Al-Farabi was Sunni. According to him, the term of Imam was not used among Shiite, and it was also common in usage between Sunnis. Fakhry also believed that since that Farabi had not committed to any dissimulation, then he was not Shiite.
As a philosopher, Al-Farabi was a founder of his own school of early Islamic philosophy known as "Farabism" or "Alfarabism", though it was later overshadowed by Avicennism. Al-Farabi's school of philosophy "breaks with the philosophy of Plato and Aristotle moves from metaphysics to methodology, a move that anticipates modernity", and "at the level of philosophy, Alfarabi unites theory and practice in the sphere of the political he liberates practice from theory". HisNeoplatonic theology is also more than just metaphysics as rhetoric. In his attempt to think through the nature of a First Cause, Alfarabi discovers the limits of human knowledge".Al-Farabi had great influence on science and philosophy for several centuries, and was widely considered second only to Aristotle in knowledge (alluded to by his title of "the Second Teacher") in his time. His work, aimed at synthesis of philosophy and Sufism, paved the way for the work of Ibn Sina (Avicenna).
Avicennism Avicenna was born c. 980 in Afshana, a village near Bukhara (in present-day Uzbekistan), the capital of the Samanids, a Persiandynasty in Central Asia and Greater Khorasan His mother, named Setareh, was from Bukhara his father, Abdullah, was a respectedIsmaili scholar from Balkh, an important town of the Samanid Empire, in what is today Balkh Province, Afghanistan His father worked in the government of Samanid in the village Kharmasain, aSunni regional power. After five years, his younger brother, Mahmoud, was born. Avicenna first began to learn the Quran and literature in such a way that when he was ten years old he had essentially learned all of them. The remaining ten or twelve years of Ibn Sīnā's life were spent in the service of the Kakuyid ruler Muhammad ibn Rustam Dushmanziyar (also known as Ala al- Dawla), whom he accompanied as physician and general literary and scientific adviser, even in his numerous campaigns. His friends advised him to slow down and take life moderately. He refused, however, stating that: "I prefer a short life with width to a narrow one with length" On his deathbed remorse seized him; he bestowed his goods on the poor, restored unjust gains, freed his slaves, and read through the Quran every three days until his death. He died in June 1037, in his fifty- eighth year, in the month of Ramadan and was buried inHamadan, Iran.
Ibn Sīnā wrote extensively on early Islamic philosophy, especially the subjects logic, ethics, and metaphysics, including treatises named Logicand Metaphysics. Most of his works were written in Arabic – then the language of science in the Middle East – and some in Persian. Of linguistic significance even to this day are a few books that he wrote in nearly pure Persian language (particularly the Danishnamah-yi 'Ala', Philosophy for Ala' ad-Dawla'). Ibn Sīnā's commentaries on Aristotle often criticized the philosopher, encouraging a lively debate in the spirit of ijtihad. Avicenna's Neoplatonic scheme of "emanations" became fundamental in the Kalam (school of theological discourse) in the 12th century. His Book of Healing became available in Europe in partial Latin translation some fifty years after its composition, under the titleSufficientia, and some authors have identified a "Latin Avicennism" as flourishing for some time, paralleling the more influential Latin Averroism, but suppressed by the Parisian decrees of 1210 and 1215.Avicenna's psychology and theory of knowledge influenced William of Auvergne, Bishop of Paris and Albertus Magnus, while his metaphysics influenced the thought of Thomas Aquinas.
Avicennism is a school in Islamic philosophy which was established by Avicenna. According to Henry Corbin and Seyyed Hossein Nasr, there are two kind of Avicennism: Islamic or Iranian Avicennism, and Latin Avicennism.According to Nasr, the Latin Avicennism was based on the former philosophical works of Avicenna. This school followed thePeripatetic school of philosophy and tried to describe the structure of reality with a rational system of thinking. In the twelfth century AD, It became influential in Europe, particularly in Oxford and Paris, and affected some notable philosophers such as Thomas Aquinas, Roger Bacon and Duns Scotus. While the Latin Avicennism was weak in comparison with Latin Averroism, according to Étienne Gilson there was a "Avicennising Augustinism". On the other hand, Islamic Avicennism is based on his later works which is known as "The oriental philosophy" (حکمت المشرقیین). Therefore, philosophy in the eastern Islamic civilization providing became close to gnosis and tried to provide a vision of spiritual universe. This approach paved the road for the Iranian school of Illuminationism (حکمت الاشراق) by Suhrawardi.
Ibn Rushd was a medieval Andalusian polymath. He wrote onlogic, Aristotelian and Islamic philosophy, theology, the Maliki school of Islamic jurisprudence, psychology, political and Andalusia classical music theory, geography, mathematics, and the mediæval sciences of medicine, astronomy, physics, and celestial mechanics. Ibn Rushd was born in Córdoba, Al Andalus (present-day Spain), and died at Marrakesh in present- day Morocco. His body was interred in his family tomb at Córdoba.The 13th-century philosophical movement in Latin Christian and Jewish tradition based on Ibn Rushd's work is called Averroism.
Averroism refers to a school of medieval philosophy based on the application of the works of 12th-century Andalusian Islamic philosopherAverroes, an important Muslim commentator on Aristotle, in 13th-century Latin Christian scholasticism. Latin translations of Averroes' work became widely available at the universities which were springing up in Western Europe in the 13th century, and were received by scholasticists such as Siger of Brabant, Boetius of Dacia who examined Christian doctrines through reasoning and intellectual analysis. The term Averroist was coined by Thomas Aquinas in the restricted sense of monopsychism and panpsychism in his book De unitate intellectus contra Averroistas.Based on this, Averroism came to be near-synonymous with atheism in late medieval usage. As a historiographical category, Avveroism was first defined by Ernest Renan in Averroès et l'averroïsme (1852) in the sense of radical or heterodox Aristotelianism. The reception of Averroes in Jewish thought, has been termed "Jewish Averroism". Jewish Averroist thought flourished in the later 14th century, and gradually declined in the course of the 15th century. The last representative of Jewish Averroism was Elia del Medigo, writing in 1485.Elia del Medigo
References [The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam]]